ISS 210 FARMER CHAPTER 1 2202017 Social Suffering The clustering of substance abuse, street violence, domestic violence, suicide, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, sexually transmitted disorders, AIDS, and tuberculosis among people living in disintegrating communities runs against the professional medical idea that suffers experience one or at most two major problems at a time. That grouping of human problems also defeats categorization of such issues as principally psychological or medical and, therefore, individual. Instead, it points to the often close linkage of personal problems with societal problems. It reveals to the interpersonal grounds of suffering: in other words, that sufferings is a social experience. (Arthur Kleinman, Veena Das, and Margaret Lock 1997) Social suffering The devastating pain, distress, and injury that social force can inflict on human experience. Social suffering can be at the same time collective and individual. Social suffering is closely linked to structural processes, mainly political and economic processes. Social suffering is shaped by historical conditions, globalizing discourses, and localized social realities. Structural Violence The term was first used in 1970s by liberation theologian Johan Galtung. Galtung notes that this form of violence is silently built into social structures and social institutions that systematically prevent individuals from achieving their full potentials (Galtung 1969). The Concept According to this definition Violence is present when human beings are being influenced so that their actual somatic and mental realizations are below their potential realizations. The Elements Galtung notes that violence can be a) Direct or indirect i.e. war vs. resources are monopolized by a group or class b) Physical and psychological i.e. bodily harm vs. psychological harm through ideological repression. c) personal or structural i.e. when one husband beats his wife there is personal violence, but when one million husbands beat one million wives there is structural violence. Personal vs. Structural Violence In personal and direct violence, there is a direct actor, but there is no such actor in structural violence.