ISS 325 Lecture 1: Exam One Notes

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Wednesday January 11, 2017 Wednesday January 18, 2017 Monday January 23, 2017
Wednesday January 25, 2017 Monday January 30, 2017 Wednesday February 1 2017
1855-1917
- Still very rural empire
- Yet population, urbanization industry & trade increases significantly
o Declining death rate/ high birth rate
o Urban population doubles; migration to cities
o More railways
- Industrial workers-terrible conditions
Post emancipation changes to peasants’ lives
- Freed from landlords’ direct, legal control (1861)
- Redemption payments (lifelong payments)
- 1874: military conscription reformed
o Maximum 7 years
- Industrialization led to more peasant migration
- Outlet for population growth
- Escape for young people
- Larger markets to buy and sell
- Disease epidemics
- Alcoholism
- Drought and food shortages
- Increase in prostitution
Alexander II, r. 1855-1881
- Emancipation of serfs, 1861
- Judicial, military, local government reforms
- Assassinated by People’s Will
o Group believed social revolution impossible without political revolution
Alexander III, r. 1881-1894
- Decree for political police to operate without court involvement
- Alexander Ulyanov and others executed 1887 for planning tsar’s assassination
- Promoted industrialization
Nicholas II r. 1894-1917; executed 1918
- Four daughters, one son with hemophilia
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Wednesday January 11, 2017 Wednesday January 18, 2017 Monday January 23, 2017
Wednesday January 25, 2017 Monday January 30, 2017 Wednesday February 1 2017
Russia: Land of Tsars (terms to know)
- Alexander II
o emancipated the serfs, very into reform, his assassination was led by a woman
apart of People’s Will
- Alexei Romanov
o The only son of Nicholas II he was a sick child with hemophilia
- Emancipation of serfs
o conditions of emancipation of serfs was worse because they had to pay for their
land and were forever in debit, there was lack of food supply
- Bloody Sunday
o A peaceful protest against Nicholas II led by a priest, the palace guards open fired
and killed a lot of people
- People’s Will
- 1905 Revolution
o Workers refuse to work, strikes, revolts throughout the country
- Alexander III
o Didn’t believe in shared power – looking for revenge for his father’s death. Rule
through fear and oppression
- October Manifesto
o Granted more freedom to the Russian population allowing more civil rights and
access to the Duma
- Alexander Ulyanov
o Lenin’s older brother who was executed because of the plot made to kill
Alexander III
- Duma
- Vladimir Lenin
o Sentenced to Siberia, promoted the idea of power to the people and workers,”
Peace, land and bread”
- Rasputin
o The “healer” that Alexandra called to help with her son’s hemophiliac diagnosis
o He was dirty and overly sexual, he was viewed as having special powers
- Industrialization
o
- World War I
o There was a system of alliances Russia had an alliance with Serbia and once
Serbia went to war Russia did also but Russia was unprepared
- Nicholas II
o Inexperienced, family oriented rather than a ruler
- February Revolution
o The first revolution that over through the czar
- Alexandra
- October revolution
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Wednesday January 11, 2017 Wednesday January 18, 2017 Monday January 23, 2017
Wednesday January 25, 2017 Monday January 30, 2017 Wednesday February 1 2017
- Russo-Japanese War
o Russia lost 2/3 of the naval armada that went to war was lost
- Fate of royal family
o The royal family was executed
Wednesday January 18, 2017
Grigory Rasputin 1869-1916
- Born a peasant in western Siberia
- Spent time in monastery
- 1903 came to St. Petersburg
- 1905 began “healing” Alexi
- Assassinated in 1916
1905 Revolution Bloody Sunday, January 1905
- Father Gapon
- Petition to tsar at Winter Palace
o Improved working conditions
o Higher wages
o End Russo-Japanese war
o Universal suffrage
- Peaceful, patriotic demonstration
- About 300,000 people
- 1000 died, some shot, some trampled
Russo-Japanese War
- 1894-95: Japan defeated China
- Russian Empire seeking warm-water port
- Trans-Siberian railway
- Vladivostok
- 1900: Russians occupied Manchuria
- 1904-05: Russian fleet destroyed
Revolution intensifies
- Strikes throughout country
- Peasant revolts
October Manifesto
- Granted freedoms:
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