The Essentialist Position
Portrayed as absolute and immutable.
This is the essentialist position- there are real and essential differences between all groups.
Rothenberg challenges this.
Genocide: Mass killing of a group of people
*In order to participate in genocide must be seen as a lesser group, one that is less human than the
The categories are socially defined and enforced.
Ex. Differences are exaggerated between people. Gays are not that different that straight
These stereotypes can be enforced in schools, parents, and the media.
Ex. Girls: Barbie, Dolls, Play doctor sets, Easy Bake Oven, My Little Pony, Doll Houses
Ex. Boys: Hot Wheels, Action Figures, Guns, Football (Contact sports), Trucks, Legos
*Boys toys involve action, while girl toys enforce nurturing, household responsibilities, and eventually
Sex vs. Gender
Sex: Biological category
Gender: Socially learned and enforced behavior.
Most White people have some black ethnicity, while some black people have white ethnicity in
the ancestry. However, someone is either black or white in society today.
Colorism: Lighter skinned people have privileges over darker skinned people. This also applies in Blacks,
where lighter skinned blacks have privileges than darker skinned blacks.
Racial Formation: The idea that race is a social construct. Race categories are formed, transformed, and
reformed over time.
Racialization: Assigning a racial meaning to a group that was previously unclassified.
Hypo-descent: (p. 15) The identification by society that anyone who is mixed two different
socioeconomic groups is identified with the subordinate group.
Ex. Any racial intermixture makes someone non-white. White is seen as a pure category.
A woman had 1/32 ND African Ancestry and 31/32 white ancestry. She w