KIN 216 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Thyroid, Luteinizing Hormone, Anterior Pituitary

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26 Feb 2020
Major Endocrine Organs
1) Anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis): Ventral portion of gland under
a. Hormones (all protein hormones)
i. Growth Hormone (GH; somatotropin)
1. Regulates growth of all body cells, promotes cell division
ii. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
1. Causes darkening of skin by stimulating melanin
iii. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
1. Females: Regulates monthly development of follicle and
egg and secretion of estrogen
2. Males: stimulates testes to create sperm
iv. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
1. Works with FSH
2. Females: helps begin ovulation and formation of
3. Males: stimulates testosterone development and secretion
v. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH; thyrotropin)
1. Regulates thyroid gland (hypothalamus also has some
vi. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
1. Promotes functioning of adrenal cortex
vii. Prolactin
1. Present in both sexes, but functions in females after birth
for milk production
b. Targets other endocrine glands (thyroid, adrenal, gonads)
c. Effects generally stimulates tissue growth and gland secretion, essential
for growth, development, maturation
2) Posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis): Dorsal portion of gland under
a. Hormones (both are protein hormones)
i. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or vasopressin
1. Targets/Effects
a. Kidneys: Retention of water decrease in urine.
b. Blood vessels: Constriction of increase in BP
ii. Oxytocin
1. Targets/Effects
a. Uterus: Contractions, delivery
b. Breasts: Lactation
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