KIN 310 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Ionic Compound, Covalent Bond, Ionic Bonding
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Comparing the Similarities and Differences of
Ionic vs. Covalent Bonding/Compounds
1. Both types involve multiple atoms coming together to form a more complex
2. In both types, bonding yields a compound that has different properties than
the original elements.
3. Both types of bonding result in atoms becoming more stable in the group than
they were individually.
4. Both types of bonding are exothermic as the potential energy of the
participants is lowered as they form the bond.
5. Both types of compounds involve the interaction between valence electrons.
6. In both types of bonding the attractive force is an electrostatic one whereby
opposite charges attract – there is no physical matter holding the atoms
7. In the solid, crystalline state, both types lead to regular, ordered patterns and
8. Both types of compounds can undergo changes in physical state under the
right conditions of temperature and pressure.
9. Both types of compounds have a net neutral charge.
10. Both types of compounds contain a fixed ratio of participants that is
represented by the subscripts in their chemical formulas (they do not require
a 1:1 ratio).
1. Ionic bonding occurs between atoms that have opposite needs for electrons
(metals and nonmetals) and results in a transfer of electrons. Covalent
bonding occurs between atoms that have similar needs for electrons (two
nonmetals) and results in a sharing of electrons.
2. By transferring electrons, ionic bonding leads to the formation of charged
particles that have either an excess of protons (cation) due to the loss of
electrons or an excess of electrons (anion) due to the gain of electrons.
Covalent compounds contain neutral atoms.
3. The electrostatic attraction that occurs in ionic bonding is between cations
and anions. The electrostatic attraction in covalent bonding arises from a
shared electron’s attraction for its original nucleus as well as the nucleus of
the sharing atom.
4. Ions bond in a pattern that maximizes attractions between oppositely charged
ions and minimizes repulsions between like charged ions. The geometric
pattern that arises is called the crystal lattice and is consistent throughout the
crystal. All ions are held by a network of ionic bonds which are considered
strong intramolecular forces. Atoms in a covalent compound are held together
by covalent bonds which are also considered strong intramolecular forces.
However, the atoms form distinct groups called molecules which are only
weakly attracted to neighboring molecules by intermolecular forces.