Wwi: wilson was pres, wanted to get us into war, not much popular support at all. 4 minute men given outlines on what to talk about and would give speeches promoting war. Made it illegal to speak out against about the government during america"s involvement in world war i. While these acts applied to all americans, it took a heavy toll on both immigrants and newspapers. This legislature effectively got rid of freedom of speech that related to american war efforts. Chilling effects- basically being scared to speak out. Newspapers would not publish articles because they were scared that their opinions offending people would end them up in jail. Press was scared to criticize government: hypodermic needle model. Idea that mass media can influence a large group of people by injecting them with appropriate information designed to trigger a response.