Early value of language: selfishness should aid survival of the individual, cooperation aids survival of the group. Most people can speak= egalitarian society: (accessibility is high) Written language: 5. 5-6 thousand years ago it started. Types of writing: pictograph: written form makes up paintings on rock or cave walls. Characteristic of early homids: ideograph: an abstract symbol that stands for an entire word or phrase. (smiley face=happy, phonography: writing where symbols stand for certain sounds (latin or shorthand, alphabets: system of writing where symbols represent sounds. The capacity to write existed long before writing was developed: evidence of symbol use at least 100,000 years ago. Why was it only developed 5. 5-6 thousand years ago: development of agriculture. Now that we stay in one place to farm, villages form, and people have to communicate: settlement in villages. Papyrus: an early form of paper made from papyrus reed: developed by egyptians in 3100 bc.