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Lecture 8

PLS100 Lecture 8

4 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
PLS 100
Professor
All

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Chapter 8: The Bureaucracy Development *Constitution said little *Congress initially established 3 departments -Treasury -Foreign Affairs -War *Departments divided into bureaus *Appointed officials to lead them *Shared power to appoint, but president can remove *Dilemmas of Delegation: Congress -Power of the purse *President -Principal-agent problem (ch.1) -Selection criteria; punishments and rewards Civil Service *Spoils system (“to the victors go the spoils”, helping those who helped you get elected) *Bureaucratization -Weber’s model bureaucracy -Hierarchy, division of labor, rules, impersonality, etc. -Red tape, highly impersonal, strict adherence to the rules Civil Service Reform *No career system *Country needed experts, not novices *Pendleton Act (1883) -Basis of the modern civil service -Merit system -Presidents expand via executive orders Bureaucratic Problems *Non-responsiveness *Difficult to punish -Hidden action -Hidden information Expansion of Government *Civil War & New Deal *Delegation from Congress and the president -Why continue to empower the bureaucracy? -Large-scale tasks -Exploit exploit expertise -Avoid blame -Stable policy -Swift, coordinated action The Cabinet *By 1849: Treasury, State, Navy, War, Interior *1879: Department of Justice *Clientele agencies -Agriculture -Labor -Commerce *Not serve general social purposes but interests of a particular constituency *1947: Department of Defense -Military establishment -Emergence of US as superpower *1979: Health and Human Services -Social welfare programs *Housing and Urban Development Department -JFK, LBJ: Revitalizing inner cities *Department of Transportation -Home of agencies established piecemeal to promote different types of transport *Department of Energy -Another effort to coordinate policy, this time for energy *Education and Veterans Affairs -Symbolic gestures *Homeland Security -Inspired by terrorist attacks (est. 2002) -Combines 22 agencies Non-Cabinet Agencies *Independent executive agencies -Placed outside departments -May report directly to the president
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