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Lecture 15

PSY 101 Lecture 15: Chapter 8 → Thinking

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PSY 101

Chapter 8 Thinking, Language and Intelligence What is thinking, language and intelligence? All are under the concept of cognition What is cognition? o The mental activities of acquiring, storing, retrieving, etc. o Every time we take in info, we are thinking Where does it occur? o Through the brain o Problem solvingdecision making is in the prefrontal cortex Cognitive Building Blocks for Thinking Mental image o Mental representation of a stored sensory experience o Visual, auditory, olfactory, etc. Concepts o Mental representation of a group or category Problem solving o Moving from a given state (problem) to a goal state through 3 steps 3 Types of Concepts 1. Prototypes o Embodies the best or most typical features of a conceptcategory 2. Artificial concepts o Clearly defined (often rigid) concept based on a set of logical rules 3. Hierarchies o Specific concepts grouped as subcategories within broader concepts Hierarchical Concept We tend to begin with basic level concepts (the middle) and add onto it. Animal o Dog or Bird Boxer, poodle or robin, penguin Problem Solving 1. Preparation o Identify facts about the problem o Separate relevant from irrelevant facts o Define goal 2. Production o Produce possible solutions by using algorithms andor heuristics
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