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Lecture 16

PSY 101 Lecture 16: CH 12 → Motivation and Emotion

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PSY 101

CH 12  Motivation and Emotion Motivation and emotion  Motivation o Set of factors that activate, direct and maintain behavior towards a goal o Revealed by direct action o Motivation is inferred by behavior o No action is taken without motivation  Emotion o Subjective feeling that includes  Arousal (Heart pounding)  Cognitions (Thoughts, expectations)  Expressive behavior (Smiles, frowns…) Theories of Motivation 6 Major Theories  Biological o 1. Instinct o 2. Drive Reduction o 3. Optimal  Psychological o 4. Incentive o 5. Cognitive  Biopsychosocial o Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Instinct Theory  Animals have fixed action responses, unlearned and found in almost all members of the species  Birds do certain things to attract mates Drive Reduction Theory  Motivation begins with a physiological need that elicits a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the need.  Once that need is met, a state of “balance” is restored and motivation decreases  Homeostasis o A body’s tendency to maintain a relatively stable state, such as a constant internal temperature Homeostasis and Autonomic Nervous System  Parasympathetic nervous system o Activates vegetative/maintenance functions o Vasodilation o Sweating  Sympathetic nervous system o Activates/arouses the body o Vasoconstriction o Shivering Optimal Arousal Theory  Animals are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance  During overstimulation, animals minimize their level attempting to maintain optimal arousal levels Incentive Theory of Motivation  Environmental pulls  Motivation results from external stimuli that pull the organism in certain directions Cognitive Theory of Motivation  Attributions o How we interpret or think about our own and others’ actions o People who attribute their success to personal abilities and effort tend to work harder toward their goals than people who attribute success to luck  Expectancies o Directs actions because we work towards what we expect o Expecting to get an A on an exam will make you study harder Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Top of Bottom)  Self-actualization needs o To find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential  Esteem needs o To achieve, be competent, gain approval and excel  Belonging and love needs o To affiliate with others, be accepted and give and receive affection  Safety needs o To feel secure and safe, to seek pleasure and avoid pain  Physiological needs o Hunger, thirst and maintenance of internal state of the body Motivation and Behavior Hunger and Eating  Stomach o Relatively inactive when empty o Can experience hunger without the stomach o Receptors detect nutrient levels o Pressure receptors signal satiety  Biochemistry o Many chemicals involved as is thermogenesis  Brain o Hypothalamus regulates eating and drinking Key Mechanisms in Hu
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