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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 – Consciousness.pdf

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PSY 101
Professor Hambrick

t n e m n o r i v n e r u o d n a s e v l e s r u o and handheld. What matters is not where your free hand is; it matters where your attention is. CONSCIOUSNESS ▯ Sle•p aBiological rhythms CIRCADIAN RHYTHM • Occur on a 24- hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness. Termed our “biological clock” it can be altered by artificial light. • Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease (morning) melatonin from the pineal gland and increase (evening) it at nightfall. ▯ SLEEP STAGES ▯ Measuring sleep: about every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of 5 distinct sleep stages, which researchers identify by measuring brain activity, eye movements, and muscle tensions. ▯ The major characteristics of the sleep stages *** ▯ AWAKE BUT RELAXED  when an individual closes his or her eyes but remains awake, brain activity slows down to large amplitude and slow, regular ALPHA waves. ▯ STAGES 1-2  During early, light sleep the brain enters a high amplitude, slow regular waveform called THETA waves. A person who is DAYDREAMING shows theta activity. ▯ STAGES 3-4  During the deepest sleep, brain activities slow down. There are large amplitude waves, slow DELTA WAVES. ▯ STAGE 5  After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude fast and regular BETA WAVES, much like awake- aroused state. (the brain is awake but the body is asleep) (the most vivid dreams, but not the only place where dreams can occur) DREAMS can occur in ANY sleep stage, but the most vivid dreams are reported in STAGE 5 (REM stage). During this stage, you are essentially paralyzed. The brain stem blocks messages of the motor cortex. ▯ Why do we sleep? ▯ THE EFFECTS OF SLEEP LOSS - Thanks to Thomas Edison’s BRIGHT IDEA, we sleep less than our ancestors. Teens, for example, need 8-9 hours per night but average only 7. 1. Impaired concentration y t i l i b a t i r r i y l l a n o i t o m E . 2 m e t s y s e n u m m i d e s s e r p e D . 3 y t i l i b a r e n l u v r e t a e r G . 4 h t a e D . 5 ▯ SLEEP DISORDER Insomnia  A persistent inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep. Narcolepsy  Overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while standing up or talking Sleep Apnea  Failure to breathe when asleep FatalFamilialInsomnia  An extremely rare disease that prevents a person from sleeping, resulting in death
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