Class Notes (836,373)
United States (324,484)
Psychology (398)
PSY 101 (128)

Thinking Critically With Psychological Science.pdf

9 Pages
Unlock Document

PSY 101
Professor Hambrick

CHAPTER 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science The NEED for Pyschological Science: - Psychological books encourage us toward “intuition” - Hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence are two reasons why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense. Did we Know it All Along? Hindsight Bias - Hindsight bias = finding that something has happened makes it seem inevitable. o “I knew it all along” phenonmenon - Good ideas are like good inventions – once created, they seem obvious. OVERCONFIDENCE - We humans tend to be overconfident - Ochsa ▯ CHAOS - Ohio state University, Philip Tetlock – has collected more than 27000 expert predictions of world events, such as the future of South Africa or whether Quebec would separate from Canada. THE SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE - What are the three main components? - 1. CURIOSITY (a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled) o Moses ▯ put it to the test. (can some people demonstrate ESP?) o Empirical approach 2. SKEPTICISM - James Randi, magician, skeptical of psychics 3. HUMILITY (an awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives) h t u r t a d - - Rodney Stark – sociologist, said that the scientific revolution was led by deeply religious people acting on the idea that in order to love and honor God – it is necessary to fully appreciate the wonders of his handiwork. CRITICAL THINKING
 - critical thinking – examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWERS QUESTIONS? ➔ The scientific method o Puts everything to the test. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD - THEORY = explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. - Hypotheses = testable predictions o A good theory will always have these - The urge to see what we expect is a pressing temptation - Us Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, preconceived expectations that Iraq had weapson of mass destruction led intelligence analysts to wrongly interpret ambiguous observations as confirming that theory. - Operational definitions = a statenment of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. - Replication = repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic findings extends to other participants and circumstances. ▯ - Theory will be useful if it ▯ - 1. Effectively organizes a range of self reports and observations ▯ - 2. Implies clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to deprive practical applications. ▯ - We can test our hypotheses and refine our theories by using descriptive methods (which describe behaviors, often use case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations) ▯ - Correlational methods – which associate different factors ▯ - Experimental methods – which manipulate factors to discover their effects. ▯ DESCRIPTION: - The case study o Examines one individual in depth in hopes of revealing things true of us all. o Ex. Jean Piaget o Intensive case studies can provide a lot of information, but individual cases may mislead us if the individual study is being atypical. - The Survey o Looks at many cases in less depth. o Asks people to report their behavior or opinions WORD EFFECTS
 - even a subtle change in wording has an intense effect - “government censorship” vs “limiting what is on tv” RANDOM SAMPLING - The best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases. - Population ▯ the whole group you want to study and describe - Random sample ▯ in which every person in the entire group has an equal chance of participation Naturalistic Observation - Range from watching chimpanzee societies in the jungle, to unobtrusively videotaping )and later systematically analyzing) parent-child interactions in different cultures, to recording racial differences in students’ self-seating patterns in the lunchroom at school. - Does not explain behavior - Describes behavior - Pyscho
More Less

Related notes for PSY 101

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.