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Lecture

Thinking Critically With Psychological Science.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 101
Professor
Professor Hambrick
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science The NEED for Pyschological Science: - Psychological books encourage us toward “intuition” - Hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence are two reasons why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense. Did we Know it All Along? Hindsight Bias - Hindsight bias = finding that something has happened makes it seem inevitable. o “I knew it all along” phenonmenon - Good ideas are like good inventions – once created, they seem obvious. OVERCONFIDENCE - We humans tend to be overconfident - Ochsa ▯ CHAOS - Ohio state University, Philip Tetlock – has collected more than 27000 expert predictions of world events, such as the future of South Africa or whether Quebec would separate from Canada. THE SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE - What are the three main components? - 1. CURIOSITY (a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled) o Moses ▯ put it to the test. (can some people demonstrate ESP?) o Empirical approach 2. SKEPTICISM - James Randi, magician, skeptical of psychics 3. HUMILITY (an awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives) h t u r t a d - - Rodney Stark – sociologist, said that the scientific revolution was led by deeply religious people acting on the idea that in order to love and honor God – it is necessary to fully appreciate the wonders of his handiwork. CRITICAL THINKING
 - critical thinking – examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. HOW DO PSYCHOLOGISTS ASK AND ANSWERS QUESTIONS? ➔ The scientific method o Puts everything to the test. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD - THEORY = explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. - Hypotheses = testable predictions o A good theory will always have these - The urge to see what we expect is a pressing temptation - Us Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, preconceived expectations that Iraq had weapson of mass destruction led intelligence analysts to wrongly interpret ambiguous observations as confirming that theory. - Operational definitions = a statenment of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. - Replication = repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic findings extends to other participants and circumstances. ▯ - Theory will be useful if it ▯ - 1. Effectively organizes a range of self reports and observations ▯ - 2. Implies clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to deprive practical applications. ▯ - We can test our hypotheses and refine our theories by using descriptive methods (which describe behaviors, often use case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations) ▯ - Correlational methods – which associate different factors ▯ - Experimental methods – which manipulate factors to discover their effects. ▯ DESCRIPTION: - The case study o Examines one individual in depth in hopes of revealing things true of us all. o Ex. Jean Piaget o Intensive case studies can provide a lot of information, but individual cases may mislead us if the individual study is being atypical. - The Survey o Looks at many cases in less depth. o Asks people to report their behavior or opinions WORD EFFECTS
 - even a subtle change in wording has an intense effect - “government censorship” vs “limiting what is on tv” RANDOM SAMPLING - The best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases. - Population ▯ the whole group you want to study and describe - Random sample ▯ in which every person in the entire group has an equal chance of participation Naturalistic Observation - Range from watching chimpanzee societies in the jungle, to unobtrusively videotaping )and later systematically analyzing) parent-child interactions in different cultures, to recording racial differences in students’ self-seating patterns in the lunchroom at school. - Does not explain behavior - Describes behavior - Pyscho
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