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Lecture 10

SOC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Occupational Segregation, Tomboy, Gender Role

6 pages19 viewsFall 2016

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 100
Professor
Dr.Clifford Broman
Lecture
10

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Lecture 10
SEX AND GENDER
-SEX is used in reference to male or female anatomy and physiology, and includes the
chromosomal, hormonal, and anatomical components of males and females.
- Gender (or gender role) refers to societal attitudes and behaviors associated with the two
sexes.
-Gender Identity refers to the degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine
o asulie ased o soiets defiitios of gede oles.
Socialization
Socialization
Process by which people develop their human capacities and acquire a unique
pesoalit ad idetit ad  hih ultue is passed fo geeatio to geeatio
People learn gender, and this also effects gender segregation in the home and workplace.
S. Pg. 265-6
-Gender socialization is the process of learning the social expectations and attitudes associated
ith oes se.
-Why is gender socialization extremely important?
Gede “oializatio…
-Is of extreme importance because it is how the subordination of females is accomplished by
the dominant group, in this case, males.
-Though soializatio, feales ake hoies aout thei ehaio that leaes the
subordinate to males.
-This happens at every age, beginning at birth.
Gede “oializatio…
-Unlike racial and ethnic relations, where the subordinate groups are overtly left with
constrained choices in the face of the dominant group, gender relations take place in the
context of socialization wherein females are both overtly and covert taught that they are not to
truly compete with males.
Fo eaple…
-In the case of race-ethnic relations, a dominant group members segregate themselves from
the race-ethnic minorities and actively discriminate against them.
- The dominant groups oetl tells the ioit goup to sta i thei plae o ou ae ot as
good as e ae.
-But in the cacse of males vs females, the dominant group, males, makes sure that females are
taught to ehae like a lad; et.
-The price paid by females for NOT doing as males like is to made fun of, and/or called names,
suh as too, ugl, fat, al, slut, ho, ot a good othe, a ith, et…..ad to e left
without a boyfriend and/or a husband!
Example..
-This kind of social pressure is applied and operates as a controlling function for female
behavior.
-It means that the dominant group, in this case, males, are able to secure life in ways that
benefits them, at the expense of the subordinate group, in this case, females.
-Males: do males over the age of 18 refer to themselves as men or boys?
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-Females: do females over the age of 18 refer to themselves as women or girls?
Socialization: The Family
-Encouragement of gender-tped iteests ad atiities i the fail…
-Girls hae oe dolls, fitioal haates, hildes fuitue, ad the olo pik. Most
girls do housework, maybe cooking.
-Boys have more sports equipment, tools, toy vehicles, and the colors red, blue, and
white. Most boys take out the garbage and other such chores.
-Fathers more than mothers enforce gender stereotypes, especially for sons. It is more
acceptable, for example, for girls to be tomboys.
-Exploratory behavior is encouraged more in boys than in girls.
-Household chores (number and kinds) adhere to gendered notions.
-However, this varies by race/ethnicity. For example, African American girls are raised to
be more independent and less passive.
Socialization: Play and Games
-Play is a significant vehicle through which children develop appropriate concepts of adult roles,
as well as images of themselves.
-Girls play in one-to-one relationships or in small groups that are relatively cooperative
and have few rules.
-Boys play in large groups, characterized by more fighting and attempts to effect a
hierarchical pecking order.
Socialization: Cultural Messages.
-Media images often convey gender expectations, called media frames.
-Media frames guide us through what the subject is and what its meaningful qualities are.
-Females are likely to be sho tig to get a as attetio, thei phsial
appearance is often focused upon, and they can be the object of hate. (Misogynistic
images)
-Males are more likely to be depicted in the dominant, agentic roles, and as the
authoritative narrative or voiceover, even when the products are aimed at women.
Socialization in Schools
-More men are in positions of authority (principals) and women are in positions of service
(teachers and secretaries).
-Teahes pay more attentions to males than to females.
-Males tend to dominate learning environments from nursery school to college.
Cultural Messages: Masculinities
-Men are expected to distance themselves from anything considered feminine.
-A man should be financially successful, or at least be working to support his family.
-During the 1980s, a new cultural message emerged that a man should be emotionally sensitive
and expressive, valuing tenderness and equal relationships with women.
Agets of soializatio…
-Personal identification with beloved caregivers also is an agent of socialization.
-Through observing and identifying with, a beloved caretaker, we also LEARN gender- that is,
how we want to perform gender.
-ALL of these various influences-family, parents, peers, schools, media-and more, teach us
masculinities and femininities.
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