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Lecture 5

WELL 175 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Venae Cavae, Pulmonary Circulation, Gas Exchange

Course Code
WELL 175

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I. Cardiorespiratory System:
- Is a major body system that circulates blood through the body; consists of the
heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system
- Through blood circulations, the CRE system transports oxygen, nutrients, and other
key substances to the organs and tissues that need them
- It also picks up waste products to where they can be either reused or expelled
II. Basic Physiology/Anatomy of the Heart
- The heart has the following characteristics:
- 4 chambers
- Average size is the size of a fist
- Located just beneath the sternum
- The heart's major function is to pump blood through two separate circulatory
- Pulmonary circulation (blue)
- Systemic circulation (red)
- Pulmonary Circulation:
- Circulatory system that moves blood between the heart and the lungs; controlled
by the right
- Systemic Circulation:
- Circulatory system that moves blood between the heart and the rest of the body;
controlled by the left side of the heart
III. Chambers of the Heart
- Atria: The two upper chambers of the heart in which blood collects before passing
to the ventricles
- Ventricles: The two lower chambers of the heart from which blood flows through
arteries to the lungs and other parts of the body
IV. Functions of the Chambers of the Heart
- Waste-laden (deoxidized blood) travels through venae cavae into the upper right
atrium of the heart
- After the right atrium fills up with blood, it contracts and pumps blood into the
heart's right lower ventricle
V. Blood Vessels: The Vascular System
- Blood vessels are found throughout the body
- Blood vessels are classified by size and function
- There are three types of major blood vessels
- Arteries: blood vessels that carry blood away from heart (red)
- Veins: blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart (blue)
- Capillaries: very small blood vessels that connect artieries to veins, and
distribute blood to all parts of the party
- Aorta: Is the body's largest artery; it receives blood from the left ventricle and
distributes it to the entire body
- Vanae Cavae: Are large veins through which blood is returned to the right atrium of
the heart
- Coronary Arteries:
- Are a pair of large blood vessels that branch off the aorta and directly supply
blood to the heart muscle with oxygenated blood
VI. Blood Pressure (BP)
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- Normal blood pressure is the force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood
vessels, created by the pumping action of the heart
- Two are two specific pressures measured at 120/80
- Systolic pressure (contraction) 120
- Diastolic pressure (relaxation) 80
VII. The Respiratory System
- The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in
oxygen an expelling carbon dioxide
- The primary organs of the respiratory system are: the lungs, air passages, and
breathing muscles, which they carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe
- Pressure from the diaphragm and ribs allows air to flow from lung tubes to air sacs
called alveoli, where gas exchange occurs
- Alveoli:
- Are tiny air sacs in the lungs that allow the exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide between the lungs and blood
- Diffusion:
- Is the process of "gas exchange" where oxygen moves from the lungs to the
blood, and "carbon dioxide" moves from the blood to the lungs. Gas molecules will also
move from an area of "high concentration" to an area of "low concentration"
- Lungs:
- Cone shaped organs perform 2 major functions:
- Air distribution to the alveoli
- Gas exchange
VIII. The Cardiorespiratory System
- The CR System at rest and during exercise:
- At rest, your heart beats at a rate of about 50 to 90 beats per minute
- At rest, lungs expand and contract about 12-20 times per minute (breathing
- During exercise, respiration rate increases to up to 40-60/bpm
IX. The Heart as a pump
- Stroke Volume: Is the amount of blood the heart pimps with each beat
- Cardiac Output: Is the amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute
- At rest, a healthy heart with a normal cardiac output pumps about 5L-6L of blood
every minute
X. Energy Production
- Metabolism:
- A process by which your body concerts what you eat and drink into energy
- During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are
combined with oxygen in the "mitochondria" to release the energy your body needs to
- Metabolic Rate:
- Is the rate and efficiency at which your body produces and uses energy
- Energy comes from food in the form of calories we get from eating carbohydrates, fats, and
proteins, and then the body converts them into two types of chemical energies to be use by the cells
as fuel
- Glucose:
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