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Lecture 9

WELL 175 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Vitamin A, Complete Protein, Coronary Artery Disease

Course Code
WELL 175

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I. Nutrition vs Diet
- Nutrition:
- Is the science that studies the ACT and PROCESS of eating and utilizing food
substances and how the body uses it in health and disease
- Examples: digestion, chemical interaction, acid secretions, metabolism,
anabolism, and catabolism
- Metabolism: is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order
to maintain life by converting food into energy and building raw materials
- These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their
structures, and respond to environments
- Is usually divided into two categories:
- Catabolism: the set of metabolic pathways which break down molecules into
smaller units & release energy
- Anabolism: the set of metabolic pathways that assemble molecules from
smaller units such as using energy to construct components of cells such as
- Diet:
- Is the HABIT of eating usual food and drinks, including the KIND and AMOUNT
of food prescribed for each person
- Unlike nutrition, diet is highly influenced by geography, cultures, likes, dislikes,
and personal eating habits
II. Essential Nutrients
- Nutrient:
- Is a chemical in food crucial to the body's growth, repair, maintenance, energy
needs, and other vital functions
- Essential nutrients are substances the body must get from food because it cannot
manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs
- There are about 45-50 nutrients available to us in food (6 categories)
- Some contain heat and provide calories:
- Proteins
- Proteins are amazing, versatile, and vital cellular working molecules
- They form key parts of the body's main structural components--muscles and
bones-- and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones
- They are organic compounds made of amino acids that contain carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
- Proteins are made up of chemical units called amino acids
- There are 20 amino acids: 9 are called essential and they must come form
food (our body cannot produce or "synthesize" them)
- 11 nonessential amino acids:
- Those that the body can make, therefore not specifically required to be
taken in unless you're vegetarian
- Complete Proteins contain all 9 essential amino acids and the body does
not store them in an acceptable amount, therefore they must be supplied
from our diet
- Incomplete proteins contain all of the 11 nonessential amino acids
- Complete protein sources: foods that supply all the essential amino acids in
adequate amounts like:
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- Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy
- Incomplete protein sources: foods that supply most but not all essential
amino acids such as:
- Plants, legumes, grains, seeds, and nuts
- Based on body weight:
- Men need about 55-60 g/day
- Women need about 45-50 g/day
- Average North American consumes twice this amount
- Adequate intake of protein can be calculated by two methods:
- First: Multiply your body weight in kilograms by 0.8 grams
- Second: Multiply your body weight in pounds by .36 grams
- Caloric Intake: Protein intake should not exceed twice the RDA
- Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of protein should be 10-15% of your
total daily intake of calories
- Carbohydrates
- The primary function of dietary carbohydrate is to supply energy to body cells
- Some cells, such as those in the brain, nervous system, and blood, use only
carbs for fuel
- During high-intensity exercise, muscles get most of their energy from
- During digestion, carbs are broken down into single sugar molecules such as
glucose for absorption; the liver and muscles take up glucose and store it in
the form of glycogen
- Simple carbohydrates:
- Contain one or two sugar unites in each molecule
- Found naturally in fruits and milk and added sugar to many other foods
- They include sucrose, fructose, maltose, and lactose
- Complex carbohydrates:
- Consist of chains of many sugar molecules
- Found in plants, especially grains, legumes, and tubers (yams, carrots,
- They include starches and most types of dietary fiber
- Whole grains are higher than refined carbs in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and
other beneficial compounds
- Whole grains take longer to digest
- Make people feel full sooner
- Cause a slower rise in glucose levels
- Choose foods that have a whole grain as the first item on the ingredient
list on the food label
- Whole wheat, whole oats, oatmeal, brown rice, popcorn, barley, etc
- Carbohydrates, whether obtained from a sugar or starch source, is eventually
broken down into glucose in the body and is then stored in the muscles
and liver in the form of glycogen
- Glycogen depletion can occur in about 30-45 minutes in stop-and-go sports,
and depending on age and fitness level
- Soluble (viscous) Fiber:
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