1.29..14

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHRO 3560
Professor
Sattenspiel
Semester
Spring

Description
Plagues and Peoples 01/29/2014 Characteristics of bacteria Single­celled prokaryotes  Lack a membrane­enclosed nucleus  Genetic material in circular DNA loop, plus sometimes a small loop called a plasmid Plasmids may be exchanged among different bacterial cells  Spheres, rods, and spirals  Contain various structures that help distinguish different groups Also distinguished by responses to lab tests  Characteristics of viruses Consist of mainly DNA or RNA May be single or double­stranded  Not living*  Depend on host cell for life functions  May possess outer coat (envelope) Or may be ‘naked’ May be able to incorporate genetic material into host genome  Retroviruses  Characteristics of parasites  The word ‘parasite’ has both a general and specific meaning  general: any organism that lives off another organism to the detriment of that organism  specific: ‘classical parasite’  eukaryotes with a membrane enclosed nucleus lack cell wall protozoa are unicellular  others are multi­cellular  often have very complex life cycles that include multiple host species  difficult to treat because of similarities to higher animal cells  Characteristics of fungus Mushrooms and molds are visible to the naked eye, but most infectious forms are microscopic  Eukaryotes with cell walls Like plants, but no chlorophyll  Variety of reproductive strategies  Some formation, budding, and fragmentation  Characteristics of prions  Abnormal forms of proteins that are found in mammalian brains Have no genetic material  Cause animal’s normal brain proteins to change to prion’s abnormal form  Result in destruction of brain cells Leading to sponge­like holes in brain Spongiform diseases  Classification by mode of transmission Mode of transmission: the mechanism a pathogen uses to get from one host to another Many pathogens have multiple modes of t
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