3.5.14.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHRO 3560
Professor
Sattenspiel
Semester
Spring

Description
Plagues and Peoples  03/05/2014 Infectious disease and plant and animal domestication  Cultivation vs. domestication  Cultivation: deliberate sowing or other management of plants that may not differ genetically from wild  populations  Domestication: human modification of a plant or animal so that it is demonstrably different from wild  ancestors and wild extant relatives; genetic change through conscious Plant domestication  Earliest: Middle East (10­11,000 YA) wheat, barely, chickpea, fig, lentil, olive, grape Africa (5000 YA): coffee, cowpea, sesame, sorghum, yam  China (7000­8000 YA): rice, millet, soy bean, onion, Chinese cabbage  SE Asia (7000­8000 YA): rice (later than China), tea New Guinea (8000 YA): banana, taro  North America (4500 YA): gourd, sunflower, goosefoot Mesoamerica (7000­9000 YA): corn, beans, avocado, tomato, vanilla, coca, pumpkin/squash, chili pepper,  tobacco How: Managing wild plants  Accidental accumulations of seeds from edible plants near latrines or garbage heaps (and settlements)  Preferential harvesting and sowing of larger clusters of seed heads  Seeds with larger food reserves germinate faster Competitive advantage over smaller seeds Early agricultural practices  Draining swamps  Slave trade  Specific agricultural methods Slash and burn vs. rice  Cutting of undergrowth Feces and urine as fertilizer  I
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