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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHRO 4300
Professor
Shenk
Semester
Fall

Description
Comparative Social Org. 01/29/2014 Robert H. Lowie, 1883­1957 Student of Boas Extensive fieldwork on cultures of Native American groups  Shoshoni, Crow, Ute, Chippewa, etc. Considered one the greatest experts on Native North Americans Exceptionally broad (# of cultures he worked with) Salvage ethnography Salvage a record of what was left of a culture before it disappeared  Attacked cultural evolutionism using ethnographic facts  Primitive Religion and Society  Like Boas Argued for the theory of cultural diffusionism which emphasizes the movement of cultural traits between  groups   W.H.R. Rivers, 1864­1922 Kinship and Social Organization, 1914 British social anthropology Torres Strait Expedition in 1898 Pioneer in the ‘scientific’ study of kinship Genealogical method of eliciting kinship terminology to allows anthropologists to distinguish biological kin  from classificatory kin Disputed Morgan’s perspectives on several key concepts Primitive promiscuity was not real Disputed Morgan’s literal interpretation of kinship terminology  Classificatory kinship was relatively advanced  Bronislaw Malinowski, 1884­1942 Fieldwork in New Guinea  Participant observation Main goal of ethnographer was to obtain the native’s point of view (emic perspective)  But also to analyze cultural systems theoretically (etic perspective) Founder of functionalism  Culture functions to meet the needs of individuals rather  than society as a whole When the needs of individuals needs are met, as are society’s  Psychological functionalism Understanding peoples motives and feelings were crucial to understanding the way their society functioned Family was the fundamental unit of society because this is where the most basic needs are met A.R. Radcliffe­Brown, 1881­1955 Fieldwork among native Australians Founder of structural functionalism The function of cultural practices was their role in sustaining the social structure of a society, including its  social order and stability Analogy between individuals in a society and the organs of a body; ‘parts function to promote the harmony  of the whole’ Role of ethnographer was to determine what social functions various cultural practices have with regard to  the social system as a whole The function of culture needs to be
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