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Lecture

BIO SC 1200 Units 5-7 Notes

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO_SC 1200
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All

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Unit 5 I. Plant Diversity 1. What tool do we have for identifying unknown plants in the field? i. We have a tool called a dichotomous key ii. It is a series of questions with yes or no answers iii. Each answer either leads to the solution or another question 2. We discussed 5 major categories of plants. Our discussion of these categories moved from "first evolved" to "most recently evolved." For each category, know what new characteristic(s) it had that previous plants did not. i. Moss (Bryophytes) ---> Vascular tissue, sporophyte dominant, leaves ---> Ferns (Pterophytes) ---> seeds, cones ---Gymnosperms (Pinophytes or Coniferophytes) ---> flowers, fruit ---> Angiosperms (Anthrophytes) 2. For each category also know: i. Characteristics (Leaves? Roots? Dominant stage? Etc.) ii. Example of members of this category iii. Human uses. i. Algae 1. Characteristics a. Single or multicellular b. Span three kingdoms c. Prokaryotic or eukaryotic d. Dominant life stage can be sporophyte, gametophyte, or neither e. Many are photosynthetic 2. Example of members of this category a. Seaweed b. Algae in algae blooms 2. Human uses a. Seaweed - high in protein, potassium, and iodine b. Omega03 gist oils are made by algae and eaten by fish c. As gelling agent for foods, lotions, toothpaste, and paints d. A tool in the lab (gels and growth media) ii. Mosses (Bryophytes) 1. Characteristics a. No roots b. No vascular tissue c. No seeds d. No flowers e. Gametophyte dominant f. Small, leaf-like structures g. Need water to reproduce 2. Examples of members of this category a. Sphagnum moss b. Peat 2. Human uses a. Burned for energy--peat is dying sphagnum moss b. As wound treatment before antibiotics c. As decoration in horticulture ii. Ferns (Pterophytes) 1. Characteristics a. Have vascular tissue b. Sporophyte dominant c. Have root-like structures d. No seeds e. No flowers f. No fruits g. Need water to reproduce h. Leaves called fronds 2. Examples of members of this category a. Tree ferns b. Water ferns 2. Human uses a. Most of our oil comes from decomposed ferns b. Decorative plants c. Air filters d. Building supplies (tree ferns) ii. Gymnosperms (Pinophytes or Coniferophytes) 1. Characteristics a. Have roots b. Produce seeds c. Have cones d. No flowers e. Don’t need water to reproduce f. Needle-like leaves g. Cuticle on leaves h. Vascular i. Sporophyte dominant j. Most do not lose their leaves 2. Examples of members of this category a. Pines - needles for leaves, hard and woody stems b. Ginko - deciduous, dioecious, extracts are used to enhance memory (not safe, not effective) c. Cycads - woody plants, similar to ferns (have cones), generally tropical 2. Human uses a. Building materials b. Decorative uses ii. Angiosperms (Anthrophytes) 1. Characteristics a. Flowering b. Vascular c. Sporophyte dominant d. Make seed protected by fruits e. Have leaves f. Leaves usually covered by cuticle g. Have roots h. Monocots or dicots 2. Examples of members of this category a. Hydrophytes - flowering water plants, modified leaves with no cuticle, stomata open and numerous b. Wood species - "hardwoods" (more durable than softwoods) c. Cacti - naïve to the Americas, large and porous taproot, have spines instead of leaves, extra think cuticle 2. Human uses a. Food b. Spices I. Energy, Plant Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Respiration 1. Why is wood so heavy? What provides that weight? i. Carbon makes up a majority of the mass in plants ii. Plants that cannot do photosynthesis do not take in carbon and will subsequently lose weight after respiration 2. Where does the energy we use to run our bodies come from? i. All of the energy we have on earth has come from the sun. ii. Plants use light energy and carbon to make glucose. iii. Humans eat plants (and the glucose) and use it to make ATP, which powers our bodies 2. Is energy created of destroyed? i. Yes. ii. JK, no iii. Energy is only changed from one form to another 2. What is our (or a plant's) metabolism? i. Metabolism is all of the reactions inside a living organism ii. The two major metabolic processes are photosynthesis and respiration 2. We looked at two sets of metabolic reactions: Photosynthesis and Respiration. i. What are the primary requirements for photosynthesis? 1. Light, carbon dioxide, water ii. What are the primary products of photosynthesis? 1. Oxygen, glucose ii. Why is photosynthesis beneficial? 1. Plants are able to make their own food 2. Makes oxygen for respiration 3. Makes glucose for respiration ii. What are the primary requirements or cellular respiration? 1. Glucose, oxygen ii. Why is cellular respiration beneficial? 1. Respiration converts sugars into ATP ii. Does respiration = breathing? Why or why not? 1. No, respiration is not the same as breathing because it does not require oxygen. However, respiration usually does use oxygen that comes from breathing ii. Does all respiration require oxygen? 1. No, anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen, but it is less efficient than aerobic respiration I. Global Warming/Climate Change 1. What is Global Warming/Climate Change? i. Global Warming/Climate Change is an increase in the average heat energy on Earth, as measured by temperature 2. What are some measured symptoms that Global Climate Change is occurring? i. Increased air and water temperature ii. Melting of polar ice caps iii. Rising shore line iv. Change in wind pattern 2. Compare and contrast the slow and fast carbon cycles. How do the contribute to Global Climate Change? i. Fast carbon cycle - 1. Exchange of carbon between biotic factors 2. Photosynthesis in plants and respiration in all living organisms 3. Plant are being killed and cannot convert as much carbon dioxide to oxygen ii. Slow carbon cycle - 1. Exchange of carbon between abiotic factors (in general) 2. Decayed plant material in crust 3. Volcanic eruptions release carbon into atmosphere 4. Humans use carbon from earth for energy 5. Humans have caused a large increase in the carbon concentration in the troposphere 2. What are the hypothesized causes of Global Climate Change? i. Mankind's activities have increased greenhouse gasses through: 1. Increased carbon dioxide emissions 2. Decreased carbon dioxide use (deforestation) 3. Increased greenhouse gasses trap heat ii. Natural fluctuation 1. Normal increase in carbon dioxide levels 2. Past 1950, carbon dioxide level is higher than it has ever been ii. Increased solar input 1. The sun is releasing more energy 2. Only the layer with greenhouse gasses are heating, the others (past this layer) are cooling 2. Are the possible causes mutually exclusive of each other (is only one "right")? i. The most accepted theory is that mankind is affecting global climate change ii. It could be a combination of several causes 2. What are the concerns or possible outcomes if Global Climate Change continues? i. Change in weather ii. Change in local climates on land and in the ocean iii. Rising ocean level iv. Change in producers (like plants)--including agriculture v. Change in habitat species vi. Change in disease distribution 2. What are some things we can do individually to decrease the amount of energy we use on a daily basis? i. Fluorescent or LED light bulbs ii. Drive more efficient cars iii. Move the thermostat up two degrees in the summer and down two degrees in the winter iv. Use low-flow shower heads v. Turn off your computer monitor at night vi. Wrap your water heater vii. Recycle viii. Plant a tree--or a whole garden 2. What good is reducing our "Carbon Footprint" with respect to Global Climate Change? i. The average American produces 15,000 pounds of carbon dioxide each year from energy use (not cellular respiration) Unit 6 I. Plant Physiology: Hormones 1. What is plant physiology? Plant physiology is the study of plants that investigates the growth and hormones of plants. I. What is the relationship between hormones and gene expression? Hormones control gene expression and genes control hormones. 1. We discussed 6 plant hormones. What are they? • Auxin • Cytokinin • Abscisic acid (ABA) • Gibberellin • Brassinosteroids • Ethylene 2. Which plant hormone is the primary growth regulator? Auxin 1. What is phototropism? Gravitropism? Thigmotropism? • Phototropism is the tendency of plants to grow towards light. • Gravitropism is the tendency of roots to grow downward and shoots to grow upward. • Thigmotropism is the tendency of plants to grow toward or away from touch. 2. How does auxin cause roots to bend down (with gravity), but stems to bend up (against gravity)? When a plant is not facing the correct direction, the hormone auxin accumulates on the side that is closest to the grown due to gravity. In stems, these high concentrations of auxin cause those cells on the downward side of the plant to expand. This causes the bottom of the plant to grow more than the top, and the plant grows up. These high concentrations cause roots to stop growing. Auxin is in high levels on the bottom side of the roots, so the top side will grow more. When the top side grows but not the bottom, the root will bend downward. 1. What other functions does auxin have besides moving plants? • Controls other hormones • Plant growth regulator • Helps loosen cell walls, causing cells to grow • Slows fruit ripening • Blocks early fruit drop • Helps pollen tubes grow • Can be used as a herbicide (2, 4-D) 2. What 5 functions did we discuss for cytokinin? • Promotes cell division • Promotes seed germination • Slows senescence of leaves and fruit • Helps auxin with cell differentiation • Signals chloroplast synthesis 3. What is differentiation? Differentiation is when cells are given specific functions within an organism. 1. What 2 functions did we discuss for ABA? • Inhibits shoot growth and promotes root growth • Signals closing of stomata (water conservation) 2. What 4 functions did we discuss for ethylene? • Lead abscission • Fruit ripening • Releases dormancy in seeds • Stimulates flower opening 3. What 2 functions did we discuss for gibberellin? • Stem elongation • Stimulates flowering 4. What 2 functions did we discuss for brassinosteroids? • Works with auxin to promote cell growth • Protects plants during chilling or drought stress 5. How can money be made by manipulating these hormones? Auxin can be used to promote growth and has
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