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Lecture 10

CHEM 1100 Lecture 10: Chapter 6 Notes (Part 2)
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by OneClass2161161 , Fall 2017
3 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1100
Professor
Brian Ganley
Lecture
10

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Fukushima Nuclear Plant
1. Tsunami caused power to gout
2. Reactors 1, 2, 3 = meltdown
3. Radiation released into ocean
Radiation
1. Rad = “radiation absorbed dose”--absorption of .01 J of radiant energy/kg tissue
2. Rem = “roentgen equivalent man”--Qx (# of rads) where Q is a relative biological
effectiveness factor
a. 1sv = 100 rm
Enrichment
1. Making Nuclear Fuels
a. Achieving critical mass
b. Power: 3-5%
c. Weapons: 85% (+β0% ← dirty bomb: most of damage is the radiation released
after explosion)
2. How to Enrich
. Ore → UγO8 → UF6 → gas
i.UγO8 = “yellowcake”
ii.UF6 = “hex”
a. Gas Diffusion
.286U6 = gas from hex moves more slowly bc heavier
i.235U6 = lighter, so gas from hex moves faster
ii.Molecules run down a 3 mi tube, U-235 out 1st
b. Gas Configuration
.New, more efficient
i.Spin UF6 in a drum--heavier moves to outside
ii.Left over: depleted Uranium (99.9% U-238)
iii.Repeat process!!
iv.Enriched (~4%) UF6 → UOβ → pellets
Problem: Radiation
1. U-βγ5 decays into “something else”--treat mixture as if it’s radioactive
2. Rods used after 2-γ yrs → replace
3. Nuclear waste:
a. ALL daughter nuclei (produced after fission) = radioactive
4. Radiation in environment:
. Natural sources
i.Radon, Cosmic, inside body
a. Human-made sources
.X-rays, nuclear medicine, consumer products
b. Other
5. What is radioactivity?
. Spontaneous emission of radiation by certain elements/isotopes
a. **Radiation not just electromagnetic!!
b. 3 Kinds of Radioactivity:
Type
Symbol
Composition
Change
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Description
Fukushima Nuclear Plant 1. Tsunami caused power to gout 2. Reactors 1, 2, 3 = meltdown 3. Radiation released into ocean Radiation 1. Rad = “radiation absorbed dose”--absorption of .01 J of radiant energy/kg tissue 2. Rem = “roentgen equivalent man”--Qx (# of rads) where Q is a relative biological effectiveness factor a. 1sv = 100 rm Enrichment 1. Making Nuclear Fuels a. Achieving critical mass b. Power: 3-5% c. Weapons: 85% (+20% ← dirty bomb: most of damage is the radiation released after explosion) 2. How to Enrich . Ore → U3O8 → UF6 → gas i.U3O8 = “yellowcake” ii.UF6 = “hex” a. Gas Diffusion . U6 = gas from hex moves more slowly bc heavier 235 i. U6 = lighter, so gas from hex moves faster ii.Molecules run down a 3 mi tube, U-235 out 1st b. Gas Configuration .New, more efficient i.Spin UF6 in a drum--heavier moves to outside ii.Left over: depleted Uranium (99.9% U-238) iii.Repeat process!! iv.Enriched (~4%) UF6 → UO2 → pellets Problem: Radiation 1. U-235 decays into “something else”--treat mixture as if it’s radioactive 2. Rods used after 2-3 yrs → replace 3. Nuclear waste: a. ALL daughter nuclei (produced after fission) = radioactive 4. Radiation in environment: . Natural sources i.Radon, Cosmic, inside body a. Human-made sources .X-rays, nuclear medicine, consumer products b. Other 5. What is radioactivity? . Spontaneous emission of radiation by certain elements/isotopes a. **Radiation not just electromagnetic!! b. 3 Kinds of Radioactivity: Type Symbol Composition Change 4 +2 Alpha (α) 2 2 protons, +2
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