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Lecture 16

CHEM 1100 Lecture 16: Chapter 9 Notes (Part 3)
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1100
Professor
Brian Ganley

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Starch vs Cellulose
Glucose polymers
Both have same monomer
O-H groups--water soluble
Structure is diff
o Cellulose: H bonds depending on branch
o Starch: H bonds in same spot
Cellulose:
o Used to make fibers; rope
o Cell walls in plants
Starch
o Storage form of glucose
Starting Materials for Plastics
1. Petroleum
a. Mostly for fuel
b. 3% go towards manufacturing plastics
c. Non-renewable
2. Other Sources
. Requires plentiful Carbon source
a. Also requires research funding
Ultimate Fate for Plastics
1. Landfills
a. Municipal waste
i.12% plastic, 31% paper (paper is made up of polymers)
b. Paper is a large disposal problem
2. Recycling
. Paper vs Plastic
.Paper
1. Non-biodegradable
2. Toxic emissions released
3. Chemicals needed to recycle
4. Most actually end up in landfills
i.Plastic
1. Heavier and 6x the space
2. Fills landfills quickly (and slow to degrade)
3. More expensive to produce
3. Incineration
. Burning Hydrocarbons (like plastics)
.Produces CO2, H2O, and energy
i.Less volume in landfills
ii.CO2 contributes to greenhouse effect
iii.Burning PVC → HCl gas → acid rain → phosgene, COCl2 (toxic gas)
a. Low environmental damage, but MUST be monitored
4. Biodegradation
. Let bacteria/fungi do the work
.Natural polymers degraded this way
i.Enzymes can’t degrade synthetic plastics
ii.Solution: make plastics susceptible to enzyme digestion
5. Landfill Degradation
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Description
Starch vs Cellulose Glucose polymers Both have same monomer O-H groups--water soluble Structure is diff o Cellulose: H bonds depending on branch o Starch: H bonds in same spot Cellulose: o Used to make fibers; rope o Cell walls in plants Starch o Storage form of glucose Starting Materials for Plastics 1. Petroleum a. Mostly for fuel b. 3% go towards manufacturing plastics c. Non-renewable 2. Other Sources . Requires plentiful Carbon source a. Also requires research funding Ultimate Fate for Plastics 1. Landfills a. Municipal waste i.12% plastic, 31% paper (paper is made up of polymers) b. Paper is a large disposal problem 2. Recycling . Paper vs Plastic .Paper 1. Non-biodegradable 2. Toxic emissions released 3. Chemicals needed to recycle 4. Most actually end up in landfills i.Plastic 1. Heavier and 6x the space 2. Fills landfills quickly (and slow to degrade) 3. More expensive to produce 3. Incineration . Burning Hydrocarbons (like plastics) .Produces CO2, H2O, and energy i.Less volume in landfills ii.CO2 contributes to greenhouse effect iii.Burning PVC HCl gas acid rain phosgene, COCl2 (toxic gas) a. Low environmental damage, but MUST be monitored 4. Biodegradation . Let bacteria/fungi do the work .Natural polymers degraded this way i.Enzymes cant degrade synthetic plastics ii.Solution: make plastics susceptible to enzyme digestion 5. Landfill Degradation . Slow for all polymers a. Anaerobic environments .Oxygen-fre
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