Historical and Cultural Background of Greece
Trojan War-1180s, greeks vs trojans
wrote in linear B writing
“DarkAge”-we don’t know fully what happened in these ages
Homer-tells us about trojan war(8thc) greek poet, Iliad, Odyssey, perhaps some
Hesiod- gives us creation myths (8thc) greek poet, Theogony (genesis of gods)
Classical Period-most famous, literature, science, math, art, lots of mythology written by
(fill in from syllabus)
Pindar- greek poet, 6th5th century BCE
Hellenistic Period-period of great writing.
Alexander the Great
Great Library ofAlexandria
Apollonius-main writer of this age Resources of Greece-not fertile. sea traders for $$$$
-2 major staples of greece, sacred to certain gods
first democracy established in athens 508 BCE
olympics began 776BCE
olympics ended because thought to be a pagan festival
anthropocentric/humanistic culture-human figure
-fight for fame/competitiveness
Language and Literature
Why do we say...
someone has a narcissistic personality?
someone lives a spartan lifestyle
someone has an achilles heel?
someone has accomplished a herculean task?
*know authors in syllabus and their most well known work*
Controversial themes in myth
rape/sexual assault same sex relationships
male domination-subjugation off women
Chapter 3: Creation
Hesiod 8th c. 700 BCE known for his stories on creation. main works= “works
and days”, “theogony” (genesis of the gods)
Chaos- the greek genesis Ge---->Night (nyx) 5 original gods
Ge-mother earth. gives birth to Ouranus, Mountains, Deep sea (pontus).
Often depicted as laying down.
-Ge and her son Ouranus mate and make:
-Hecatonchires-the 100 handed, 50 headed ones
-12 Titans- 6 boys, 6 girls, especially relevant are Mnemosyne,
(memory god) Themis, (goddess of justice) Rhea, (fertility goddess)
Oceanus, (surface of the ocean) Cronus (sky god)
*Important children of Titans: Helios, Selene, Eos,
Eros-most beautiful of gods. limb loosener
Erebus-blackness inside tartarus. mated with night and made day and air
Ouranos (Sky)- child of Ge Mountains-child of Ge
Deep Sea (Pontus)-Child of Ge
Air (Aether)-child of erebus and night
Day-child of erebus and night
Helios- earliest of sun gods, later superseded by apollo. Statue stood on the
island of Rhodes.
-reconstruction of statue known as Colossus of Rhodes
-named one of 7 wonders of the world
Phaethon-son of the sun god. finally can spend time with father and is
granted a wish, wants to drive chariot of the sun, helios regrets offering,
begs him not to. He sets Ge (the earth) on fire until zeus strikes phaethon
Selene-moon goddess. later equated withArtemis. she drives the moon
chariot. falls in love with Endymion (shepherd hunter), finds him asleep,
falls in love, do the dirty and are supposed to have 100 kids. Gods fear
Selene is leaving her duty as moon goddess and put Endymion into eternal
Eos-goddess of dawn. brings first light. “rosey fingered”, amorous. Sleeps
withAres (god of war) Aphrodite is furious when she catches them and
puts a curse on Eos where she starts to fall in love with mortals. Falls for
Tithonus-Eos’first mortal lover. she takes him to olympus but then he
grows old and zeus objects to the mortal and Eos begs zeus to grant him
immortality. Grants wish but Eos forgets to ask for eternal youth so he just
gets old as shit. she puts him in a jar and turns him into a cricket.
Ouranus- terrible father, Ge tries to kill him. Hides Cronus (her son) under
her and Cronus castrates his father Ouranus. Penis falls into ocean and
producesAphrodite. She is the goddess of love, beauty, and sex.
Cronus-marries his sister Rhea and makes the first 5 olympians Hestia,
Demeter, Hera, Poseidon, Zeus, Hades (not olympian). Cronus fears one of
his sons will rise up so to stop that he eats all the kids. Rhea is pissed so plots to overthrow him by sparing the last of the kids (Zeus). She wraps up
a stone to swallow. Rhea takes Zeus to Crete where he is raised by nymphs
until manhood. Then he conspires with Rhea to overthrow Cronus. They
slip him a drug that makes him vomit up the other kids and Zeus with his
siblings and army wage war against Cronus and titans.
Clash of the Titans (Titanomachy): Zeus against cronus
Zeus’army: siblings, Hecatonchires (100 hand etc), cyclopes, Titaness
Themis and her son Prometheus.
Cronus’army: his brother and sisters,
- Ge births the giants. Tython is serpent like and battles Zeus. Zeus wins
with lightning bolt. Zeus is head of everyone. Zeus creates man.
- The Creation of man:
Hesiod says Zeus created man, he goes on to relate FiveAges
1)Golden age-an age of gods when cronus rules, but olympians imprisoned
2)Silver age- humans created by zeus who grew corrupt and were
3)Bronze age- created by zeus who grew warlike with weapons of bronze.
4)Heroic age- the age of valiant heroes created by zeus.
5)The Iron age-nothing but work and toil. Hesiod is living in this time.
The dark age.
Atlas- the brother of Prometheus. Atlas is condemned to hold the earth for
Prometheus-very crafts, Mother is Themis goddess of justice and he wants
to help mankind. Zeus doesn’t. Prometheus tricks him. Used ox, gave
worse half in the fat when it should have been the better half. Zeus is angry
and Prometheus gave fire to mortals. Zeus chains him to cliff and releases
an eagle to eat his liver everyday.
Deucalion-son of prometheus married to Pyrrha. Zeus goes to earth to see
if there is a good man. nobody. Finds that Deucalion and Pyrrha are good
so he says he will flood earth. He takes them to a high point, then floods.At the high point there’s a temple to Themis (Gma of Deucaliion). They ask
how to regenerate humans. “Cover your head and throw the bones of your
mother behind your back”AKAthe stones of mother earth. The two have a
Hellen- (Father of the Greeks). Son of Deucalion.
Pandora-Zeus tries to get back at mortals by giving them women. Pandora
(all gifts) is given. She has a box she cant open. Hermes carries her to
earth. Prometheus’brother wants pandora. She opens the box and releases
evil, yet hope stays.
Io- virgin priestess of Hera. Zeus seduces Io in the form of a thundercloud.
Hera keeps an eye on Zeus. She turns Io into a cow and she puts a guard
over Io. the MonsterArgus (1000 eyes that don’t sleep at same time) is
now her guard. Zeus sends Hermes to lullArgus to sleep. Then decapitates
him. Io escapes. Hera takes the eyes and puts them on the peacock. Hera
sends stinging flies after Io and she wanders to where Prometheus is tied
up. He tells Io that she will find peace when she comes to Egypt. When
she gets there Zeus changes her back.
From matriarchy to Patriarchy
-Ge and Ouranus
-Rhea and Cronus
-Zeus and Hera
-Women dominating to Zeus taking power and male images take
Clash of the Titans (Titanomachy)
theoi.com (descriptions, literary references on characters)
(about roman authors in greek, latin, english)
text p. 795
etiological- myths that explain meanings or origins
Sept 5th (chapter 6)
Nature of the Gods
anthropomorphic-having human characteristics but on a greater scale
BUT SOME DISTINCT DIFFERENCES
perfect body (with some exceptions)
superhuman strength and abilities (able to shape shift, command the
elements, appear and disappear, fly)
ichor- not blood in their veins, described as transparent
special diet (ambrosia and nectar, occasionally some boozing.
-but also have humanly weaknesses...
Residences -olympians- Mt Olympus
-other gods- earth, sea, underworld
-Hephaestus- seems to have his own palace of bronze
-Zeus and Olympians
-other important gods: Hades, Dionysus,Asclepius, Pan
- Other supernatural beings:
- -nymphs ( nereids-salt water, naiads-fresh water, dryads-tree) inhabit the
sea, fresh water, and the woodlands
- river gods
- satyrs, fauns, centaurs inhabit the woods
- Cerberus (3 headed) and Charon (takes dead across river) in habit the
sometimes appear in one myth, reappear in others; usually female, often
killed by heroes
-Gorgons (medusa)-mortal of 3 sisters, snakes!
-Sphinx-half woman half lion. gives riddles
-Scylla and Charybdis- sea monsters
-products of mixed unions, between gods and mortals
-not as powerful as full gods but more powerful than humans
-usually not immortal (with some exceptions) -some examples=Achilles, Perseus, Herakles
-Heroes can be the same, though not always part god, but sometimes
venerates like gods after death
The nature of greek religion
-no single book but religious doctrine is plentiful in myth and other records.
-all towns, however small, had sanctuaries, temples, and altars; serves by
priests and priestesses
-many gods were honored in certain festivals on specific dates, but worship
went on yearly
-some cults required initiation (especially mystery religions)
-blood sacrifice and offerings are key to all greek cults
-impiety (not showing reverence to gods) could be dealt with harshly,
sometimes even death
The realm of the Sea: Gods, goddesses, and their offspring
-Titan Oceanus produces 3000 daughters and 3000 sons (freshwater, rivers,
-Ge mates with Pontus, and produces many offspring, one important sea
god is: Nereus, the “old man of the sea”
-Nereus produces 50 daughters, the Nereids (sea nymphs) including
Thetis, Galatea, andAmphitrite
-other descendants of Pontus and Ge: Iris, Gorgons, Harpies, Graeae
Nereus-shape shifter, very wise, but you have to catch him before he
answers your question.
Seeds of disaster: the apple of discord is thrown into the wedding of Peleus
and Thetis by angry Eris. on the golden apple it says “for the most beautiful”. 3 goddesses scramble for apple. the 3 choose a mortal man to
decide. leads to trojan war.
Galatea- has a boyfriendAcis but is loved by Polyphemus (cyclops). she
doesn’t like him, but the waters she goes to is near his home. he gets
angrier. rips mountain top and throws and killsAcis.
Iris- the goddess of the rainbow, sometimes Hera’s messenger. Daughter of
Pontus and Ge. her sisters are the Harpies (bird women)
Graeae- the “gray” ones. also sister to Iris and Harpies. only have 1 eye
and 1 tooth. very wise. flesh eaters.
3 Gorgon sisters- famous one is Medusa, the only mortal, who becomes
Poseidon-roman: neptune. God of the sea, earth quakes, storms. married
to Amphitrite. Symbols=trident, horse, bull. Important cult sites: Isthmia
Triton and Proteus- half fish sons of Poseidon. Rapid shape shifters. In
literature, they merged in identity with Nereus.
Scylla-lover of Poseidon. was first a nymph doing poseidon but then she
gets poisoned byAmphitrite in her bathing water and turns into monster.
Charybdis- daughter of poseidon. She is a whirlpool and 3x she sucks up
water/spits it out. she lives in the straits of Messina.
Pegasus- offspring of Medusa and Poseidon.
One screwed family:
Echidna (part snake) and her kids, the sphinx (woman/lion/winged), the
chimaera (snake, lion, goat), the hydra (snakes), cerberus(3 headed dog),
Athena- Roman: minerva. Goddess of wisdom, the strategy of war,
household arts, protector of cities and heroes. unmarried and is a virgin.
symbols= owl, olive, aegis, weaving, special quality to her eyes. Daughter
of Zeus, frequently attended by Nike(god of victory). Important cult sites:
her birth: Zeus is involved with Metis (cunning/smart/deceptive) becomes pregnant, and fearing that the kid will be more powerful than him, zeus eats
Metis. he gets a bad headache later and hephaestus chops open his head
andAthena comes out fully grown. Zeus gives her a piece of armor for her
chest. Female counterpart of Zeus.
Epithet: a word that elaborates on a god’s character or aspect of their
Promachos: at the head of the battle
Nikephoros: bringer of victory
Parthenos: the virgin
Glaukopis: bright eyes or grey eyed?
Pallas: after a friend she kills accidentally, in whose honer she makes the
Tritongeneia: reared by Triton?
Arachne’s myth: The Curse of Hubris
-she is a weaver, but she has exceptional skill. becomes famous/arrogant.
Athena’s domain is household arts so she is attached. athena hears boasting
and decides to visit her. she challenges athena to weaving contest. athena
could not find arachne’s fault, and she hit her.Arachne tries to hang herself
but athena curses her into a spider instead.
-goddess of sex, physical beauty, love, fertility
symbols: dove, myrtle tree, red roses, dolphin, aphrodisiacs, ex) magic
-born from the sea: attended by the Graces (3 beautiful women) and the
Horae (the personifications of Seasons) -Important cult sites: Corinth(1000 prostitutes), Cyprus(the island),
-Epithets: Pandemos(aphrodite for everybody, sexual), Ourania(ouranus is
her father, there’s a more spiritual side to this)
=the three graces (Splendor, Mirth, and Good Cheer)
-Aphrodite andAres are lovers. War and Peace unite.
-Statue:Aphrodite of Milos ( Venus de Milo) relates to her affair withAres.
She is usingAres shield as a mirror.
Priapus-son ofAphrodite, fertility god. very sexual.
Pygmaloin’s dream girl comes to life. when aphrodite comes to shore men
love her women are jealous and refuse to worship her. She turns them all
into prostitutes. Pygmalion doesn’t approve and wants a pure young girl
for a bride. He decides he will make one instead. sculpts her our of ivory
and prays toAphrodite to send him a pure girl. his wish comes true.
Hestea,Artemis,Athena (virgin goddesses)
Aphrodite boasts of her control except over the virgin goddesses. Zeus
makes her fall in love with mortals as punishment. she spots Anchises
where he is attending flocks. Aphrodite falls in love. She goes to temple in
Cyprus, dolls up, returns to Mt. Ida and animals follow her and then leave
to mate. He is suspicious of her being goddess. he tries to resist and she
lies that she is virgin mortal. Says she was plucked up by Hermes and left
there, he falls for it. “I’d even risk going to Hades to be with you.” so they
have sex, in the morning she reveals herself. she is pregnant. she gives him
instructions-when kid is born, nymphs will raise him, then at certain age he
will be given toAnchises, and then he can be taken to Trojan Court. Don’t
tell you slept with a goddess! Aneas is son.
Adonis-other loves ofAphrodite. his mother is Myrrha and she falls in love
with her dad and with the help ofAphrodite, she has sex with him with a
trick. She is disguised for it to work. The dad later finds out and attempts
to kill her,Aphrodite turns her into a tree. (Myrr tree which is seeping sap
to resemble tears) However, she is pregnant, so she gives birth toAdonis.
-he grows up to be a good hunter, andAphrodite warns him of the beasts. Adonis ignores her and dies by a boar.Aphrodite pours potion on him and
he turns into blood red flower (Anemone) Story about death and
Sappho of Lesbos
-female poet (ca. 630-570 BCE)
works: love poetry in 9 books
“i famish and i pine, pain drips, golden aphrodite, how you burn me”
Eros roman: cupid. god of love, often associated with same sex desire
alternately explained as one of the original gods from Chaos or as
-becomes younger in pictures
Hetairai-woman companion/escorts. sexual partners for upper classmen,
-selected at a young age for beauty and brains
-schooled in the arts of love and as companions to men
-educated beyond normal women
-respected and coveted role for women
-7 symposiasts have gathered to celebrate a “best playwright” victory. The
discussion turns to love and they each give an opinion.
Agathon:: tragic playwright, winner of contest
Pausanias: agathon’s boyfriend Phaedrus: participant, the subject of another Platonic dialogue, also on love
Eryximachus: a doctor
Alcibiades: a popularAthenian, “man about town” known for his
exceptional good looks, arrives late and drunk
Aristophanes: comic playwright
The opposing nature of love:
-originally 3 sexes, male, female, and androgyne (combo)
-each were 2 bodies, joined back to back, with one head but faces looking
both ways, 4 legs, 4 arms
-very powerful and ambitious, attempted to scale Olympus and assault the
-zeus cuts them in half, the halves mourned for each other
-those cut from the androgyne love the opposite sex
-those cut from double man/double woman love the same sex
Psyche seduced by Eros
-psyche-greek for soul
-eros-greek for love
psyche was a princess and she was so pretty thatAphrodite becomes
jealous.Aphrodite sends her son, Eros, to put a curse on Psyche so that only
ugly men fall in love with her. her dad now thinks that gods have cursed
her. decides he will sacrifice her by marrying her off to a giant snake that
lives in forest. Eros falls in love with Psyche though. he whisks her off to
palace at night and she hasnt seen his face. Eros only visits her at night.
Each morning he leaves before she wakes. her two evil sisters find out
where she is and begin to taunt her. psyche says she has a lover god and sisters question it saying he might be the snake.Aphrodite is pissed. one
night she peaks to see, but spills oil on him and he wakes up. Though he
loves her, she has broken the rule and must leave.Aphrodite hunts Psyche
down and hunts/abuses her. Psyche contemplates suicide.Aphrodite gives
her 3 impossible tasks which sends her deeper into depression. Zeus likes
Psyche in the end. 1st task: sort hill of wheat and barley grains. she gets
help by ants who sort for her. 2nd task: gather water from rapid river, must
go to source at top of mtn. Zeus helps by sending the eagle to fill it for her.
3rd task: she is given a box and must go to underworld and bring back a
fragment of Persephone’s beauty. As she is walking down with box she
hears voice and when opened it puts her in death-like sleep. eros wrestles it
back in box and revives her with a kiss. takes her to olympus and begs zeus
to allow them to marry woohoo!
REVIEW FOR TEST 1:
Mt Olympic, Delphi, Thebes, Crete,Asia Minor, Olympia, Mycenae,Argos,
Sparta, Troy =important cult sites
main authors: Hesiod, Theogony, (genesis of the gods), Homer, Iliad, and
the odyssey, homeric hymns, Ovid, Metamorphoses (CHANGE OF
SHAPE), (include many myths)
Chaos-origin of all gods. The greek big bang.
Ge (earth)--Tartarus (bad ppl go to die)--Eros (early god, son of
Ouranus and Ge kids
early gods: Helios (sun)
Selene (moon) Eos (goddess of dawn/rosey fingered)
Helios later equated withApollo. Bronze statue of him named Colossus of
Rhodes. one of the 7 wonders of world.
Death of Phaethon (son of helios wanted to ride chariot...he got roasted)
know that story!
Selene falls for sleeping Endymion (shephard) Selene later equated with
Titan Cronus castrates his father (Ouranus) know that story!
Cronus later devours his kids so that no one would overtake him. Know
that story! (wife gave him rock to eat instead and hid Zeus, later zeus
rescues eaten siblings)
Cronus and Rhea-Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Poseidon, Hades(not exactly
-know who fought in Zeus’army and Cronus’army.
-Know the original 12 Olympians
Zeus and hera’s kids= hephaestus, ares
-zeus and other womens’kids=athena, hermes, apollo, artemis
-Know the five ages of man: Golden, silver, bronze, heroic, iron
-prometheus brings fire to man-then chained to rock and liver is eaten.
-zeus releases pandora who in turn releases EVILLLLL
-zeus rapes Io as a cloud -Zeus floods earth but Deucalion (son of prometheus) and Pyrrha survive
(then they toss rocks over shoulders which turn into people...)
Know qualities of the gods-immortal, perfection, superhuman, Ichor (rather
than blood), special diet (ambrosia and nectar) etc
Second generation olympians
ares, hephaestus, athena, apollo, artemis, hermes, aphrodite
-know the Divine Hierarchy (zeus--> demi gods)
abduction of ganymede by zeus-zeus falls in love with him and abducts
Hera: juno, symbol of peacock, wife of zeus, marital sanctity
zeus and hera kids= Hebe (youth), Eileithyia (childbirth), Hephaestus,Ares
Hephaestus: blacksmith of gods, symbols of forge, fire, smith tools. Wife is
Aphrodite. Cult sites areAthens, island of Lemnos.
Ares: Mars. God of war, of blind, brutal courage, and bloody carnage.
Symbols are implements of war.
Don’t need to know names of muses, but know that 9 and from zeus and
The fates/ kids of Zeus and Titaness Themis. one name is
3 nereids to remember: Thetis, Galatea,Amphitrite.
-Polythemus (cyclopes) killsAcis because he loves Galatea
Origin of trojan war: apple of discord is thrown into wedding of Peleus and
Thetis by the angry Eris.
-know the 3 gorgon sisters. 2 are immortal, last is medussa. epithets of athena: Nike or Nikephorus (victory) or Promachos (virgin)
Aphrodite has affair withAres and Hephaestus finds out and tricks her to
find out. He drops a net on them that is unbreakable and calls in all male
gods to watch and laugh.
-socrates talks about spiritual love. NOT physical
50 MC questions. TEST TWO:
Artemis (Diana): Goddess of the hunt, wilderness and moon; Patron of young
girls and childbirth.
A virgin; twin sister of Apollo; Daughter of Zeus and Leto
Symbols: Bow, stag, bear, moon
Cult sites: Delos (she is born there), Ephesos, Brauron
Epithets: Cynthia, Ephesia, Brauronia(“artemis of brauron”)
*Takes the place of selene
Said to be the golden heir of beauty, seems untouchable.
Young, athletic, and beautiful.
Short tunic-more like male hunting tunic for mobility
Dangerous personality: Unpredictable, formidable, almost blood-thirsty.
Artemis is similar to “Artamos”—Butcher
Known human sacriﬁce in the cult of artemis
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus: one of the 7 wonders of the world.
Zeus and Leto:
She is a second generation titan. Leto becomes pregnant with zeus’ baby and
Hera says If anyone helps leto, they will pay. Hera ﬁnally says you cannot give
birth on stable ground. They thought that Delos was unstable. Artemis is born
ﬁrst, on mt. Cynthus. Brauron: Near Athens. All young girls had to serve artemis
here. Priestesses aka: “little bears”—how she is connected to the bear.
Apollo: Child of zeus and leto.
Temple of Ephesus
*The Massacre of the Children of Niobe (Niobids) she is the queen of thieves.
Artemis sets up a cult to herself, Apollo, and leto, and niobe questions why
worship leto who only has two children? Niobe refuses to worship any of them.
Angry artemis, and Apollo begin to kill the children. While the funeral is being
prepared by the women, artemis begins to kill the daughters. Niobe begs for the
life of her last child, and niobe was then turned into a rock. ‘The weeping rock’,
mt sipylus (turkey)
Actaeon: Artemis hears the cries of her Nymphs. Actaeon, out hunting with
friends and stumbles upon the nymphs. Artemis turns him into a Stag and then
makes his own dogs attack and kill him.
Zeus and the Doomed callisto (the most beautiful). Zeus vows to have callisto. He turns himself into artemis, and thinks it is the best costume I’ve ever come
up with. He then rapes her. She becomes pregnant, and hides it under her tunic.
The other nymphs discover her pregnancy. Artemis immediately kicks her out of
the virgin brigade. Left to fend for herself, and hera appears to her and turns
her into a bear. Her human mind still intact. She gives birth to boy, becomes
hunter and accidentally kills his own mother. Zeus takes pity and turns her into
a constellation- Ursa major: Big bear, her son becomes Ursa minor: little bear.
Zeus, poseidon and hermes visit an old farmer named Hyrieus. Hyrieus is kind
enough to grant them a wish. Related to urian: urine. Grows up to be a hunter,
sometimes known as a giant. In the woods attempted to rape artemis.
*Artemis conjures the deadly scorpion. She sets a scorpion against him and it
stings him to death.
Triple-faced goddess: Artemis, Selene, Hecate
Fused together. Explained as selene in the sky, artemis on earth, and Hecate in
the underworld. Hecate: goddess of witchcraft and the black arts. Lives in
underworld, and travels with torches, snakes, and black hounds. Anything
dealing with darkness are all in the realm of Hecate who Appears at crossroads,
known as an unlucky place.
The fusion of two or more gods or religious ideas into one. (3 gods in orion’s
Euripides’ Hippolytus; (Aphrodite, artemis, and Poseidon appear in this
Hippolytus: Illegitimate son of theseus. Follower of Artemis, Has no interest
about sex. Opposite of his father. Sensitive
Theseus: His father, king of Athens. Had an affair with Hippolyta-amazonian
woman. All about sex, doesn’t understand his son.
Phaedra: His stepmother
Hippolyta: has an affair with theseus. Is dead.
**Aphrodite gets pissed that a mortal man has no interest in sex. A man she
cannot bend to her will. She decides to kill him. Because he follows artemis (these two
butt heads) Aphrodite wants to lead him to the underworld.
Hippolytus to phaedra:
phaedra is gonna kill herself but she has a plan. Odes spoken on your death
bed were extremely powerful. she expressed shame/humiluation because he
hasn’t even tried to understand her. before she dies, she writes a note to theseus to her husband saying hippolytus has raped her and now she will
hang herself. her husband finds it and is pissed. calls a curse on Hipplytus
(his son) Theseus has mortal and immortal father. Hippoltyus has run off
and is going along the coast and poseidon sends up a sea monster which
startles his horses and he is thrown from chariot and is tangled and dragged.
not quite dead yet. Aphrodite’s polar opposite (artemis) steps in to give
theseus a talk about how hes treated his son. says he’s a terrible father but
can be pardoned. artemis says to hippolytus she will punish a lover of
aphrodite (since aphrodite cursed hippolytus) in a sign of sacrifice, virgins
will present sacrifices (cutting hair) in memory of hippolytus. him and his
father reconcile and he dies. aphrodite wins basically.
Misandry (hatred of men) and Misogyny (hatred of women)
-are the myths indicative of reality? Not exactly
-women were praised (heterai), female writers, etc. not as prominent but
still appreciated. There was no gender hatred except in myths.
Apollo- roman: apollo
-god of music, creativity, prophecy and reason, enlightenment, and thus
became leader of the muses and gave inspiration to poets and artists; also
equated with the sun.
symbols: bow, laurel, lyre, dolphin, raven, sun
Unmarried; twin brother ofArtemis; son of Zeus and Leto
Epithets: Pythian (refers to Delphi)
Delian( refers to Dolos)
Phoebus (bright or shining)
Apollo (with wreath and lyre) with muse Ourania
Delos-where apollo is born. Hera tortures her (the mom) and threatens all cities that she can’t give birth in Delos but will allow if a temple is made.
Hera prolongs labor for 9 days. Hera was trying to prevent birth of apollo.
The twins don’t really have childhood, they’re both adults immediately.
Apollo turns himself into a dolpin and takes priests to Delphi (comes from
Delphis which is greek for dolphin) from Crete. Delos =”sea washed”
at delphi, he steals sanctuary from Ge. the greeks thought that delphi was
the center of the world. Zeus sends 2 eagles in opposite directions and they
converge at center of worldAKAdelphi. “the navel of Ge”. There’s a big
snake guarding Ge’s sanctuary and apollo kills it and says “lay there and
rot” the greek work to rot is “phthoh” and that is similar to python. Apart
from Olympia, Delphi is the most sacred sanctuary. natural beauty is there.
“know yourself” and “nothing in excess” was engraved on temple.
Oracles channel god and spoke his words to you. they had a psychic ability.
The oracle at Delphi was the most famous one. People from all over came
to ask the Pythia questions.
The Pythia-Apollo’s psychic priestess at Delphi. When question was
approved, they chose you by lot and you asked. She sat in a basement
under the temple and she sat on a tripod (3 footed). It was weird she sat
there, it’s her symbol though. She sat over a fissure (steamy) that ran over
the earth and it expelled gases that put her in a trance and she would talk
with gods. She was basically high as shit when she talked to people. All
her answers were ambiguous. she carried a laurel branch and a bottle of
water from the sacred spring outside the temple.
Lovers...Apollo has many! joked that he is the unluckiest of gods because
his lovers end up dead.
Princess Cassandra: Player of Trojan war (daughter of king) apollo wants
to have her as lover. she says she will be his lover if he gives her the gift of
prophecy. he says okie dokie. Gives her the gift but she refuses to be his
lover. he then curses her mouth because prophecies are coming out of her
mouth. he spits in her mouth to curse her..ew. and now everything she says
is true but the curse is nobody will ever believe her. during trojan war she
knows all the answers but nobody listens because they think she is insane.
at the end of the war she takes refuge in a temple of athena. no violence in
them! but one of the greek soldiers (Ajax) drags her out of it and rapes her. Sept 24th
Apollo; son of Zeus, affair with titan Leto
Apollo pursues Daphne, nymph, father is a local river god
Daphne is not interested inApollo, wantsArtemis
•Apollo chases her through the woods
•Daphne’s father turns her into the laurel tree,
o becomesApollo’s scared tree
wears a crown with its leafs, bay leaves are what Laurel trees grow
•Apollo’s laureates: achieved some intellectual high point
o Poet laureate
o Nobel alureate
o Bacca-laureate (now shortened to bache-lor)
•Ancient Daphne is now part of Turkey (Harbiye)
The Death of Hyacinthus
•Hyacinthus is a Spartan prince, whoApollo kills by hitting him in the head with
a discus(bronze) by accident
•Death and re-birth,Ai sound of mourning (mourning was very passionate) blood
of hyacinthus turns into a flower
o Flower, brilliant purple lily with markings on it
The Death of Cyparissus
•Has a deer that he rides on
•Deer is killed
o Cyparissus wants to grieve over the dear for the rest of his life
o Apollo transforms him into the Cyprus tree
o Associated cyprus with death,Apollo says he will always be a sign of
mourning and be their when we mourn
o Cyprus trees planted in cemetaries
The Princess Coronis
•Apollo is having an affair with her
•While away, he has pet raven watch over her
•Coronis has been unfaithful,Apollo not pleased
Apollo shoots arrow at Coronis and kills her
•Coronis is pregnant
•Raven turned black for delivering news
•“no thy self” written on apollo’s temple
immediately regrets killing her for being unfaithful
•attempts to save the baby, taking it to centaur Chiron
•Old and wise •
been given immortality by Zeus
•Tutors many heroes
oEx: lyre, weaponry, speaking
•God of health and healing
•Symbols: snakes, snake-entwined rod
Son ofApollo and Coronis: father of Hygieia (daughter, health goddess, word
•Important cult sites: Epidauros(dedicated to him),Athens, Kos
oLike health spas
oWhere you could go to get healed
oKnew how to keep wounds clean
oMaze in the basement of Epidauros, some think its where the scared
oAncient Hierapolis, native thermal springs, in turkey
oAsklepois sanctuary, where people spent the night with snakes to get well,
snakes thought to be able to absorb fevers in their bodies
oOfferings, moldings of body parts
•may have worked withAsklepios
Hippocratic bench, model made for keeping bones in place when they heal
Caduceus Confused withAsklepios snake-entwined rod
The Death of Hippolytus
Artemus so distraught and goes toAsklepois who is able to raise him from the
The death ofAsclepius
•Zeus kills him with thunder bolt
•ThinksAsclepius is too hubris, too confident
•Only Zeus can kill a god
Practices and sanctuaries continue
Asclepius isApollo’s son
•Athena’s flute is stolen •Marsyas finds it and keeps it, learns how to play it
•Athena beats him
•Makes a boast that he can play the flute better thanApollo can play the lyre
•Apollo and Marsyas face off
oWinner can do anything with loser
oJudgement in favor ofApollo
oApollo ties him to a tree, a case of hubris
▯Punishment doesn’t seem to fit the crime
▯Marsyas river, Ge’s tears turns into river
Apollo and Pan
•Pan challengesApollo to contest as well
•To take place on a mountain, Tmolus, mountain god, to be the judge
oPan plays the pipes
oApollo becomes enraged that gods think the mortals are better
oPan given “asses ears” as punishment 8/27/12 1:00 PM
Hermes (Mercury):Messenger of the gods, Guide of souls to the Underworld;
Patron of thieves, tricksters, travelers; associated with road and boundaries.
Symbols: Winged/sandals/cap, caduceus
Son of Zeus and Maia, daughter of the TitanAtlas .
*No major temples, but his statues were frequent in Gymnasia and countryside
shrines, where shepherds and travelers would visit them.
-Always young looking.
-His character is tricky-prankster/mischievous/deceitful
Homeric Hymn to Hermes:
*Birth: Killed a tortoise and made a lyre from it, the harp.
*Theft ofApollo’s Cattle: Steals cattle and makes them walk backwards in their
tracks so it looks as though they are headed into the meadow.
*Invention of Fire Sticks: He kills two cows and roasts their meat. Was going to
eat it but then decides to give it all as sacrifice to the gods.
*The Confrontation ofApollo: He finds Hermes and Maia,Apollo knows better
and takes it to judgment.
*Judgment before Zeus: Zeus is in favor ofApollo, demands hermes to show him
where the cattle are hidden.Apollo gets the lyre for his trouble with hermes if
Apollo forgets his anger.
*Reunion and Exchange of gifts: The three-branched golden staff.
Maia: Second Generation Titan; mother of Hermes
Atlas: Father of Maia;
Pan: Son of Hermes. Half goat/half man.Associated with woods and country side.
Invented the ‘pipes’instrument.
Daphnis: Son of Hermes. Shepard. Wooden pipes Herms: (Boundary Marker): In 415BD, the herms ofAthens were desecrated. The
crime was blamed on the Greek generalAlcibiades (in the symposium, after
Socrates), who fled to Sparta. He was convicted in absentia and condemned to
Alcibiades: Supposedly went and knocked the penises off of these boundary
Hermaphroditus:Aphrodite is his mother, hermes’son.After birth, neither
parents are available, so he is left to the nymphs to be raised-in turkey. He sets out
on his own, and travels to a pool in the woods- inhabited by Nymph, Salmacis.
She only has men on her mind, and is very forward with him. Granting Salmacis’
prayer,Aphrodite joins them in one body: The origin of the hermaphrodite.
Salmacis: Nymph; threw herself at hermaphroditus
Autonoe & Ino
Dionysus and the Pirates
oct 1 ch 13
Dionysus roman: bacchus
-god of vegetation, particularly the grape, but also god of religious ecstasy
-symbols: grapes, ivy, thyrsos (pine cone topped staff) panther, the theatre
-son of zeus and the mortal Semele, princess of thebes, marries Ariadne,
princess of Crete
-important cult sites: thebes, athens, alexandria
followers: maenads/bacchae, wood land creatures (nymphs, fauns, satyrs,
-epithets: “twice born”, “liberator”
-also god of fluids & androgynous
ecstasy-standing apart from yourself/ going into alternate reality through
wine, sex, dance. life cannot always be perfect, you must escape
sometimes with Dionysus
mystery religions-religions of ancient Greece and Rome in which secret
rites (Gr. orgia) were revealed to initiates his birth: zeus has affair with semale but zeus never reveals himself in true
form, so he visits her in dark. hera had no idea, he told semale he would do
whatever she asked. hera disguised herself as old woman and semale
requests to make love to zeus in his true form, semale died in flames and
zeus snatched 6 month aborted fetus and sewed it in his thigh. zeus hatches
dionysus from his thigh. after birth he is taken with nymphs and leaves
ampelus- when he died dionysus is sad and tears his hair and flesh and
when his tears mingled with the boys blood a grapevine came forth. wine
was used to relieve his grief.
dionysus returns from india enlightened, powerful, seductive, and brings
secret rites back to Greece.
his followers: Maenads, Nymphs, Fauns, Satrys, Silenoi, Centaurs
-maenads were usually organized into groups led by a single man
Great Dionysia-festival of Dionysus in the spring in which the new plays
were introduced, held late march-early april and was organized by the
archon and 12 committee members
The Rural Dionysia:
1.omophagia (eating of raw animal flesh)
2.opening of new wine, ritual drunkenness
3.possession by the god
4.men “playing” Dionysus lead groups of maenads, but in what?
5.others may have dressed the part of satyrs, silenoi, etc
Key players in the story of dionysus in Euripides Bacchae
-Tiresias, prophet living in Thebes -Cadmus, retired king of Thebes
-Pentheus, present king of Thebes
-Autonoe and Ino
-Semele (mother of Dionysus through Zeus)
Agave (mother of Pentheus)
Dionysus comes to Thebes to teach Pentheus a lesson.
Dionysus arrives and possesses most women to start celebrating rites in
woods (slaughtering animals, eat flesh etc) Pentheus is away when this
begins, he returns and hears and is angry. he arrests citizens involved.
Pentheus orders he eastern strangers to be brought before him. he is
madded at Dionysus’cool demeanor and his insistence that Pentheus is
crazy, that he should accept Dionysus’worship. Angered, he locks up
Dionysus in the prison. Dio releases earthquake which releases him.
Dionysus says he will show him the secret rites so Pentheus agrees to dress
like a fool. Dionysus shape shifts in front of him to further mess with his
head. Pentheus is going crazy. Pentheus begins to believe he likes being
dressed like a woman. Pentheus dies soon after. (death includes maenads
tearing him limb from limb and his mother is a part of it)
The curse of the golden touch:
Midas does favor for Dionysus. and is granted a wish...he wishes he could
have a golden touch but soon after goes hungry and wishes he could take it
back. Dionysus does end up taking it back. It is a moralistic story and
being careful what you wish for. Kidnapper pirates:
Dionysus is kidnapped by pirates because he was wearing royal robes and
beautiful hair, they sense he is rich. he just goes with it. when they get to
sea the ship turns into grapevines and it fills with wine and Dionysus shape
shifts into scary animals and pirates jump overboard. he turns them into
dolphins. haha peace out mother fuckaaas!
The secret history by Donna Tartt
Pan- roman: Faunus
-woodland god, a follower of Dionysus; patron of shepherds. sometimes
said to have invented the “shepherds’pipes”, “panpipes” or “syrinx”
-son of hermes
-symbols: pipes, panic(he creates panic)
-important cult sites:Athens,Arcadia
The wood nymph Syrinx hears something rustling...
She is virgin follower ofArtemis and is being stalked by Pan. he attacks
her and attempts to assault her and she is blocked by the river. she cries to
sister/father to save her and they turn her into a stand of rushes and when
pan comes up all he hears is rustling of the rushes and he cuts them and
makes them into the panpipes.
Echo and the punishment of the arrogant Narcissus...
Echo is virgin follower ofArtemis and she is not interested in pan, she
rejects him a lot and finally he gets angry and comes into group of nymphs
and inspire panic. in their panic frenzy they tear apart Echo and all that is
left is the Echo of her screams. other version:
Echo is in love with Narcissus but he wants nothing to do with her and she
is already cursed and zeus has come down to play with nymphs and he puts
echo on guard “if my wife shows up detain her” so hera does show up and
echo chatters to mislead hera and later when hera finds out she was mislead
she cursed Echo and says she shall only be able to repeat what she hears.
when echo tries to meet Narcissus she is only able to repeat. because he
wont return her love he is punished by falling in love with himself. he soon
died. his flower is the daffodil. Echo goes crazy and dies and all that is left
is her voice.
hades: roman: pluto
god of the underworld
symbols: cerberus, helmet of darkness (made by cyclops, makes him
-brother of original olympians
-epithets: host of many, wealthy one, unseen one
-festival for hades every 100 years, stomp feet or hit grounds with hands to
summon him and turn your face away, only black animals sacrificed, blood
put in hole to give to hades
what angers him most is when people try to escape from underworld
geography of underworld:
-Plains ofAsphodel: where most of the dead went
-Elysium/Isles of the Blessed: a heaven like place
-Tarturus/Erebus: place for great sinners five rivers:
-hate (styx orAcheron=refers to underworld)
-pool of Mnemosyne (for those initiated into mysteries religion)((lets you
retain your happy memories)
-pool of Lethe (forgetfulness, forgets life on earth and becomes miserable
spirit of underworld)
Charon- ferries souls across river of Styx (child of Nyx and Tarturus)
-you have to pay to get taken to underworld, otherwise you float in bay
-if dead aren’t honored, they may haunt you
-dead enter underworld where they meet at a crossroads in the forecourt of
-they are judged by 3 judges Minos, Rhaldamanthus, andAecus, Hakate in
-dead usherd to their final destination: plains ofAsphodel,(most common)
Elysium, or Tarturus
Echidna-gives birth to dangerous monsters including Cerberus who guards
-he lives on living flesh alone
-Asphodel has death significance (flowers) the god Thanatos-is the god of death
-often shown winged, and when you die, he appears with his brother. he
holds an upside down torch which is symbol for your life being snuffed out
Hypnos-god of sleep. brother of Thanatos. Their mother is Nyx. Hypnos
stews poppies, a narcotic that induces sleep. these flowers grow in cave
where brothers live.
the Furies- live in underworld. said to be 3 goddesses (sometimes more in
art) they spring from blood of Ouranus’castration and are goddess’of
vengeance. specific type of vengeance: murder of family member. Called
blood guilt: deadly sin in greek world. made you unlucky. the Furies carry
torches and snakes.
Hecate-triple faced goddess. she told demeter she heard persephone’s
screams in induction and she becomes confidant of persephone in the
mortals who visit underworld and survive:
-Odysseus: to find the prophet Tiresias
-Herakles:to capture Cerberus
-Orpheus: to reclaim Eurydice (bride)
-Theseus: to abduct Persephone
-Pirithous: to abduct Persephone
-Psyche: to deliver the box to Persephone, a labor forced on her by
Famous sinners condemned to Tarturus:
Ixion-his sin was murdering his father in law and he attempted to rape
Hera. he pushed guy into hot bed of coals and was ostrasized by people for this and Zeus took pity on him and brings him to Olympus. Ixion keeps
making passes at Hera and Zeus tests him by creating a fake Hera who is in
fact a cloud and Ixion sleeps with her. Zeus concludes his intentions are no
good and he is condemned to Tarturus. Fake hera gives birth to Centaurs.
For his crimes he is latched to great wheel and snakes bite him while the
wheel rolls through fire.
Sisyphus- was a king who promotes commerce for people to come to city
and he murdered them and took their wealth. he continually violated the
guest-host relationship which is protected by Zeus himself. So he betrayed
Zeus. Zeus strikes him dead and orders god of death to chain up Sisyphus
in Tarturus. he is able to get out of locks and chains up Thanatos instead
(death is chained up) and no one can die. Ares complains because he likes
to see people die in war. Sisyphus goes to Persephone and told her “before
i die up in earth, my wife threw my body in the street and i was not given
proper burial” (lie) he told his wife to do this on purpose. he tells
persephone he needs to go back up to have proper burial and she believes
him and lets him go back to world, when back he tries to escape and
Hermes wrestles him back into Tarturus again. For his crime he has to push
for eternity an enormous boulder up a giant hillside which rolls back down.
Tityus- attempted rape of Leto. offspring of Zeus and Elara (not important
name). when she becomes pregnant he hides her in Ge, the child grows
huge and splits her open. Ge has to carry the child to full term, so Tityus is
earth born. he is giant. hera decides to use him-promises to make him king
if he rapes Leto (who slept with Zeus, mother of apollo and artemis) so he
raped her but zeus finds out and puts him in Tarturus where eagles eat out
his insides everyday.
Danaids-49 sisters who murdered their husbands on their wedding night.
Their dad is Danaus. he has a twin brother who he hates and brother has 50
sons. Danaus makes brother believe that they will be friends and to show
allegiance he offers 50 daughters to the 50 sons. told daughters that they
should kill husbands on wedding night. blood guilt. all but one of the
women do it. they are condemned to Tarturus and must fill pots with holes
in them for eternity. the one who doesn’t is rewarded by aphrodite and is
married to a king.
Tantalus-murdered his son (Pelops) cooked him, and offered him to the
gods. He is brought to Olympus as chosen mortal and later betrays them by
sacrificing his own son instead of prized animal. gods find out (except
Demeter who is in mourning because persephone is with Hades and she eats Pelop’s shoulder by mistake) Zeus orders that the Fates reverse
decision of Pelops and put him back together except for the shoulder
Demeter ate. Hephaestus makes him an iron shoulder and is given 2nd
chance at life. for his dad’s crime, he is placed in pool of water up to his
neck and food is dangled over him just out of reach and only gets enough
so that he doesn’t starve to death.
Orpheus: parents sometimes said to beApollo and Muse Calliope. he is not
-magical musician-plays lyre to wood nymphs
-teaches others his way of life
-like many heroes he journeys to the underworld
-suffers terribly and dies violently
-his philosophy is celebrated in a mystery religion
Orpheus and his new bride Eurydice
-he marries her, deep in love, but day of wedding it takes place in
woodlands he is said to be in Thrace (NE greece) dangerous place. they are
walking thru forest and Eurydice is startled by satyr and steps on poisonous
snake. he is in grief so he wont settle for her death and goes to underworld
to plead for her life. he goes there and plays on lyre for hades and
persephone. Hermes guides spirits to underworld so he is holding hands
with her. everyone weeps. they allow Orpheus to take Eurydice back to
world. hades tricks orpheus: orpheus has to lead and eurydice has to follow
and he cannot look back. they start journey up path and at the very end of
walk he looks back and she is taken back to underworld. he races back to
underworld to river styx, he begs charon to take him back across river but
he refuses. turtle lyre. he grieves for 7 days on river bank and he vows to
never love again. retreats to woods of Thrace. people thought he despised women and kill him. Orpheus is a peaceful prophet possibly related to
Apollo. clash of religion involved. orpheus’head floats out to sea and ends
up on the island of Lesbos. he has gift of prophecy and his head is found
speaking with lyre, nymphs find it. shrine was made and oracle was there.
What did the greeks think about Orpheus:
-he had been a real person, a traveling prophet/healer/ musician who taught
the secrets of healing and salvation
-his philosophy was written down in the “Orphic Bible”
-he established a secret mystery religion into which one had to be initiated;
the rules are still unclear but it forbade the eating of meat and shedding of
blood and this protected all life.
Other imported mystery religions, promising salvation to initiates:
-Cybele and Attis(grandson)-(fromAsia Minor)
-involved ritual castration and flagellation; being drenched in bulls
blood (the infamous taurobolium)
Isis, Sarapis(husband), Harpokrates(son) (from egypt)
-‘holy trinity’symbolizing life, death and rebirth
Cybele-shown in carriage pulled by lions. nature/fertility goddess. similar
to artemis/demeter/ge. she has a child by Zeus but kid is monster
hermaphroditic being that terrorizes other gods, so the gods castrate it and
from the blood springs the almond tree. a river nymph eats almonds and
becomes pregnant, she gives birth toAttis.
Attis-becomes handsome and as he grows up Cybele finds him attractive
not knowing who he is, he is not interested, he is engaged to local princess.
Cybele kills princess in jealousy and drivesAttis mad which leads to self
castration. he is set to die at foot of pine tree and from his blood springs
violets. Zeus resurrectsAttis from dead so he is now her castrated side kick. Attis carries cornucopia and was symbol of death and rebirth.
day of blood- initiates had to self flagellate (whip yourself) until blood was
shed or be drenched in bulls blood. purification rituals. priests were
Isis- egyptian god. when in roman culture she is made to look greek. she is
fertile mother goddess, fertility, life, birth.
Sarapis-death and rebirth
-how cultures intermingle and they evolve=Isis and Sarapis
**Some characteristics of Greek Heroes: (10 total on Blackboard)
1. Unusual birth, sometimes divine
2. Helped by at least one key ally
3. May journey to the underworld
4. Spiritual enlightenment
5. success with marriage, power, wealth etc…
The Foundation of the Royal House of Thebes:
**How did Cadmus come to Thebes?
Abduction of Europa: Is taken to Greece. She and her brother Cadmus are Phoenicians,
what is now Lebanon. (Similar idea to Persephone) The girls and Europa are playing in
the flowering meadows. Zeus became a white bull. He takes her to Crete. Cadmus and
Europa are said to be from Tyre. Cadmus sets out for his sister, and consults Pythia about his sister. Cadmus’is the first king of Thebes.
Spring guarded by a snake belonging toAres. They need water for city, so they continue
to fight it. Cadmus himself kills the beast, andAres is angry. For 8 years Cadmus isAres’
slave. When the time is done,Ares rewards Cadmus with Harmonia (Ares and
Aphrodite’s daughter). Harmonia and Cadmus are turned into snakes and transported to
**Hephaestus presents the Cursed Necklace to Harmonia. It had the ability to keep the
wearer young. It cursed the house.
**Later on, Europa will become the mother of Meanaus (a king).
Royal House of Thebes:
1. Cadmus, founder of Thebes
2. Pentheus, grandson, killed by maenads
3. Labdacus, grandson, father of Laius
4. jocasta, wife of laius
5. not important
6. Laius, Father of Oedipus
8. Eteocles, son of Oedipus
9. Creon, brother of jocasta
**Abduction of Pelop’s son by Laius
Laius abducts boy and rapes him, this Causes the boy to take his own life. Laius is able to
return to Thebes and reclaim his thrown. Pelops has not forgotten. Laius marries Jocasta.
Laius consults the Pythia. He asks if he will have a son and she says; yes but you will die
at his hands. His wife becomes pregnant, and when it is a son they decide to get rid of
him. They put a spike through his ankles, and plan to expose him.
The story of Oedipus
*Oedipuis the king: When he becomes the king. This is Oedipus’exile.
The servant takes pity and gives the baby (Oedipus) to a shepard. Takes the baby to the
king/queen of Corinth.At a symposium, these men make fun that oedipus is not of royal
blood. He goes to the Pythia. She tells him, “avoid your homeland for you will kill your
father and marry your mother.” Oedipus hits an old man accidentally kills him at the
crossroads-ends up being Laius (his real father). Thebes is cursed by Sphinx, because of
Laius’crime. Oedipus vanquishes the monster by answering “what goes by one name, but is first 4-footed, then 2-footed, and then 3-footed?” a human. Jocasta says she will marry
anyone who kills the sphinx. He marries his mother.
**They have a few kids: Eteocles, Polynices, Ismene,Antigone.Aplaque falls upon the
city. Plaque of infertility: no crops, no children.
Oedipus Blamed for the plague at Thebes.
The servant that gave Oedipus to the shepard was still in the house. When Jocasta finds
out about Oedipus she kills herself. Oedipus finds her body and in horror takes her cloak
pins and gouges his eyes out. He is then exiled. His sons, alternate the thrown but at the
end of the year Eteocles doesn’t want to give up the thrown. Oedipus becomes a beggar,
no wealth and blind. Polynices, his son, comes to him and proposes they overtake
oedipus delivers the final curse to Polynices. brothers agree to share thrown and switch
each year. but Eteocles refuses to give up power and polynices convinces heroes to attack
home city so he can take thrown. he goes to oedipus to get blessing. instead he is cursed.
you are doing evil! Eteocles comes out from city and they kill eachother. jacosta’s brother
takes thrown (Creon)
the sons of pelops=Atreus, thyestes
Agamemnon m. clytemnestra: Orestes, iphigenia, electra
the story of the family is told by 3 classical playwrights:
=sophocles, aeschylus, and euripedes
WHAT THE FUCK!!!!!
Agememnon prepares :
Clytemnesta is furious at agamemnon because before fleet sails out from tarsus,
Agamemnon accidentally kills a stag that is sacred to artemis and she steals the winds!
the only way to sail is with wind. agamemnon is told the only way to restore wind is to
sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. so he does.
Clytemnestra (wife) andAegisthus (Thyestes’son) prepare to murder agamemnon so
they can share the throne. he is taking a bath and she grabs a cloak and then murders him with an axe.
Orestes kills his adulterous mother (Clytemnestra) and her lover (Aegisthus). he returns
home from exile. it was duty of son to avenge death of dad. he, through trickery, kills
both his mother and the king and takes revenge for father and took blood guilt for his
mom. Orestes pursued by the furies. (later called amenities.) he goes toAthens to be