Product and Process Development

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Food Science
F_S 1030
Clarke- Universityof Missouri- Columbia

Product and Process Development Saturday, March 15, 2014 11:31 PM Product Development • Product development includes everything from the generation of new product ideas to the product launch into the marketplace • New products can be novel or simply modifications of existing ones • A product development team combines various skills to complete the development process Reasons for Product Development • Satisfy corporate mission o Make products that meet customer needs • A product strategy is a plan to accomplish the corporate mission o Providing several forms of a similar product can create a product line • A line extension is a new form of an established product and often has a success rate greater than novel introductions Product Development Stages • Idea stage - step where the concept is developed • Development stage - step where a bench-top or prototype product is created • Commercial stage - includes the test market and scale-up from pilot production to the commercial production and market introduction Proliferation of Food Products • Stores are jammed with 1000's of items o Existing products and staples o Line extensions (similar to existing products) o New products (different from existing items) Where to Find New Products • Supermarket • Fast food restaurants • Casual dining • Military and space programs Steps in Product Process Development • Idea generation • Formulation • Process design • Package design • Scale up • Consumer testing • Market testing • Product launch Sources of New Food Product Ideas • Individuals o Recipes o Experimentation at home • Marketing departments • Sales departments • Customers • Product developers Improving Existing Products • Line extensions are defined as changes in a product feature o Flavor, size, name, package • Balance between satisfying current customers and obtaining new customers by making something better o "New coke" o Angus burgers Types of Improvement • Sensory - green ketchup • Shelf life - diacetate in hot dogs • Reformulation - low calorie versions • Process modification - #D chips • Package modification - MAP Brand New Products • These are products developed for many reasons o Pizza o Hot dogs o Technology - extruders o Trend - health food o Material for packaging - microwavable Reality Check • Not all ideas will work so feasibility is important • Many constraints limit prospects for success o Ingredients o Quality o Safety o Process limits o Distribution limits Food Formulation • Developers need to know many things o Functions of each ingredient o How they interact with ingredients o Which are essential and which can be replaced o Order of addition • The list of ingredients provides clues about a formulation but omits the actual amount Process Operations • Process developers design new processes or modify existing ones • Effects of unit operations on microbial activity, ingredient functionality, and product quality need to be known • Pilot plants contain miniaturized equipment to mimic operations in a manufacturing plant Quality Evaluation • Standards and specifications are developed for products and processes • Sensory, microbial, and nutritional testing may be used to ensure products are meeting specifications for prototypes Storage Stability • Effects of handling and storage are also determined for prototypes • Shelf life testing is needed to ensure that the product meets requirements, establish expiration dates, and assess quality under conditions seen by the consumer Package Development • Packages serve many functions o Contain product o Protect product o Provide information o Sell the product • Package engineers choose the right materials and make sure that the product and package are complete • Packaging materials: o Metal o Glass o Paper o Fiberboard o Plastic Packaging Labels • Product name and place of business • Product net weight and size • Product ingredients (in decreasing order) • Company name and address • Product code (UPC) • Product dating (if applicable) • Religious symbol (if applicable) • Special warning instructions (if applicable) The Nutrition Facts Label • Required information o Serving size o Amount per serving for nutrients except vitamins and materials o Percent of daily value for nutrients • Reference Daily Intake values for 13 vitamins, 12 minerals, and 8 key food components in Ch. 2 Allergens • An allergy is an abnormal response to a food that is triggered by the immune system o Peanuts, tree nuts, dairy products, eggs, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish • A food intolerance is a sensitivity to various substances that does not involve the immune system o Aspartame, MSG, sulfites Scaling Up • The transition from pilot plant production to commercial plant production is scaling up • Testing the product
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