Monday, April 7, 2014
Food Chemistry, Why Bother with it?
•Product development (desirablee constituents): flavor, texture, shelf-life, preservaties,
•Undesirable constiutents: Chemical residues? Adulteration?
Analysis: Does the food product meet specifications?
Theobroma Cacao L. "Food of the Gods"
•Maya/Aztec drink: "Xoxolatl"
•Growing regions: tropical
•Cocoa pod harvest:
•Harvested by hand
o Cocoa beans are actually the seeds in the pod
•Fermentation and Drying
o 5 days of fermentation (natural)
• Develop brown color
• Develop flavor precursors
• Cleaned, bagged, and shipped
•Roasting, Grinding, "Dutching"
o Beans roasted in large drums
• Develop flavor and deeper color
• Beans cracked, shells removed
• Nibs ground into cocoa liquor
•Pressing and milk chocolate manufacturing
o Cocoa liquor pressed
• Liquid cocoa butter
• Solid cocoa powder
• Milk chocolate: cocoa 10% milk, Powder 20%, sugar 50%, cocoa
butter 20%, some lecithin and vanilla
•Conching and Tempering
o Conching for flavor development and to smoothen = stirring while warm
• Tempering for proper crystal formation = heating and cooling with
o Maillard Reaction - causes flavor to form
NO one chemical tastes like chocolate!
• Over 800 flavor compounds contribute to this flavor