Formulated Foods.docx

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Department
Food Science
Course
F_S 1030
Professor
Clarke- Universityof Missouri- Columbia
Semester
Spring

Description
Formulated Foods Thursday, February 20, 2014 6:13 PM What are Formulated Foods? • Formulated foods are products that are mixtures of ingredients • They are generally not recognizable as their own original plant or animal source o Bread o Cakes o Chocolate o Ice cream Why are they Formulated? • Flavorful • Convenient • Preserved • The ingredients of formulated foods are included to serve various functions o Preservative o Nutrient o Sensory Benefits • Like processed foods, formulated foods tend to be shelf stable, safe, and convenient • There are fewer restrictions for formulated foods o Junk or fun foods o Healthy or functional food • Preservatives reduce microbial growth and increase food safety Consequences • Salt, sugar, and fat are often in formulated foods and may have nutritional consequences • While processed foods may seem tasteless, formulated foods are very tempting Formulation Steps • Steps in making formulated foods are similar to those for processed foods and are called unit operations • Material handling, pumping, mixing, heat exchanging, and packaging are common steps for many products Yogurt Processing • Common steps o Milk is pasteurized and homogenized o Heated to 190F to denature proteins o Cooled to 104F o Inoculate with culture • Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp bulgaricus • Streptococcus salivarius spp thermophilus o Incubate at 109-122F (pH 3.7-4.3) o Fill into containers Formulated Products • Baked Goods o Breads o Cookies o Crackers o Cakes o Donuts o Cinnamon rolls • Pasta and Noodles • Jams and jellies • Beverages • Confections • Sausages • Frozen Desserts Leavening of Baked Products • Leavening refers to the production of gases (carbon dioxide) in dough that contribute to the volume achieved during baking and the final aerated texture • Typical leavening agents: o Yeast o Baking Soda o Baking Powder o Ammonium Bicarbonate Pasta and Noodles • Pasta products are cooked and dried alimentary pastes • Semolina is used and is from durum wheat (a high-protein hard wheat) • Macaroni is made from semolina and water • Egg noodles are similar but include egg solids (5.5%) Jams and Jellies • Most jams, jelly, preserve or similar products are about 70% sugar • Jam and preserves utilize whole fruit while jelly uses juice • Jam and jelly has added sugar while preserves do not o "sugar-free" preserves? Pectin Gelation • Pectins are able to form dispersions, sols and gels are used to stiffen the texture of pies, fillings, jams and jellies • Conditions needed for high methoxyl pectin to gel are addition of acid and sucrose • Conditions needed for low methoxyl pectin to gel are addition of calcium ions Soft Drink Beverages • Soft drinks are non-alcoholic carbonated or noncarbonated beverages o Sweetening agents o Edible acids o Natural or artificial flavors • True soft drinks o Colas, fruit flavored drinks, ginger ale, root beer, soda water, and tonic water Production of Soft Drinks • Water quality is vital • Water treatment steps o Superchlorination o Coagulation o Sand filter o Activated charcoal filter • Carbonation steps o Cascade over plates in chamber with CO2 o Increase pressure and decrease temperature Confections • These are treats commonly based either on chocolate or sugar • Examples o Rock Candy, Fudge (crystalline sugar) o Caramel, jelly beans, hard candy, taffy • Unit operations in chocolate making o Mixing, refining, conching, tempering, molding, and enrobing o Conching for flavor development and to smoothen - stirring while warm o Tempering for proper crystal formation = heating and cooling with agitation Sausages • Categories o Fresh (breakfast links) (NOT CURED) o Cooked and smoked (bologna, hot dogs) o Fermented (pepperoni) • The most basic steps include o Grind o Mix o Stuff Meat Processing • Meat is edible animal flesh and includes red meat, poultry and seafood • Further processed products include many familiar items: o Bacon o Frankfurters o Ham o Luncheon meats Unit Operations for Hot Dogs • Common steps o Grinding o Mixing o Chopping/emulsifying o Stuffing o Smoking/cooking o Chilling o Peeling o Packaging Preservation Methods • Chemical additives used for meat products are o Sodium nitrite o Phosphates o Salt/sugar/spices o Sodium erythorbate Meat Curing • The combination of salt, sugar, and nitrite added to meat is aka curing • Curing affects color, flavor, preservation and safety (Clostridium botulinum - bad) • Several methods are used o
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