Milk Lecture.docx

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Food Science
F_S 1030
Clarke- Universityof Missouri- Columbia

Milk Slides Thursday, February 27, 2014 4:49 PM Important characteristics of milk •Fat: 3.7% globules with absorbed membranes, high in short chain FA •Proteins: 3.1%, highly nutritious, pI = 4.6 o o Whey proteins: 20%, dissolved, lost in the whey •Lactose: 5%. Soluble 12C disaccharide •Calcium: major mineral, 90% casein-bound •Acid removes Calcium from casein What preserves Cheeses? •Pasteurization of milk acid (low pH) •Competition by starter culture •LOW Aw (moisture removal and added salt) •Low temperature of storage Classes of Cheese •Very hard (grating): Parmesan •Hard: ripened by bacteria • Semisoft •Soft Cheese making Principles •Coagulation of casein, milk's major protein o Acid production by bacteria o Proteolysis by rennin or chymosin •Removal of whey - about 90% of the volume o Heat causes coagulation (curd) syneresis (shrinkage) o Draining and pressing expel whey and air •Ripening at low temperature •Control of humidity •Protection from contamination and drying Major Cultures Used in Cheese Making •Lactococci, strepococci and lactobacilli convert lactose to lactic acid; proteins to peptides and amino acids •Propionibacteria produce CO2 and propionic acid •Penicillium requefortii produces short chain fatty acids (rancidity) •Leuconostocs produce diacetyl Cheddar cheese •Made from whole milk •Between parmesan and cottage cheese •Moisture content Swiss Cheese •Made
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