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History Ch 17.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1200
Professor
Ervin
Semester
Spring

Description
History Ch 17: Freedom’s Boundaries, At Home and Abroad, 1890­1900  (openness and restriction) 02/10/2014 Populism: The Farmer’s Revolt Farmers faced increasing economic insecurity Farmers Alliance F. Texas, late 1870s Spread to 43 states by 1890 Proposed that federal government establish warehouses to store crops The People’s, or Populist Party, 1890s Supported miners & industrial workers Embraced modern technologies—railroad, telegraph Government regulation Reform­minded women in farming and labor Especially in West (movement for women’s suffrage) 1892 Populist presidential candidate—1 million votes Cross­racial organizing Community organization and education The Populist Platform, 1892 Classic document of American reform Direct election of US Senators Government­controlled currency Graduated income tax Right to form labor unions Public ownership of railroads Low cost public financing for farmers  (in a sense, anticipating/foreshadowing reforms to come in 20  century) th Populism and Labor Populists tried to appeal to industrial workers but failed to get labor’s support 1894, urban working­class voters moved to the Republicans Bryan and Free Silver In 1896, Democrats and Populists supported William Jennings Bryan for the presidency Called for free silver (unrestricted minting of silver money) Condemned the gold standard Influenced by Social Gospel Movement Championed a government helping ordinary Americans The Campaign of 1896 (very important) Republican nominee Ohio governor William McKinley First modern presidential campaign Mark Hanna, political manager Industrial America (financiers, managers, workers) voted solidly Republican McKinley’s victory created one of the most enduring political majorities in American history Credited with starting dominance of Republicans in presidential arena, wouldn’t be until 1930s that we  would see a democratic president Jump Jim Crow: The Rise of Segregation in the South The Redeemers in Power: Undoing Reconstruction Merchants, planters, businessmen Reduced taxes, public spending (schools) Laws allowed arrest of the unemployed Vagrancy laws Increased punishment for petty crimes South’s prison population increased Conflict (convict?) labor system The New South? Henry Grady  Poverty Stifled economic development South depended on North for capital & goods Most farmers suffered Black Life in the South Black farmers felt the brunt Cities supported the growth of diverse black communities & a black middle class Southern cities Dynamic institutional life Labor market divided by race Most unions did not accept blacks The Elimination of Black Voting 1890­1906: Every southern state enacted laws or constitutional provisions meant to eliminate the black vote Poll tax, literacy tests Corruption Not until the 1990s would number of black legislators in the South reach Reconstruction level Numerous poor and illiterate whites also lost the right to vote Disfranchisement approved by the North The Law of Segregation In 1896, Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court approved “separate but equal” doctrine for state laws 8 to 1 ruling, separate but equal is constitutional John Marshall Harlan—lone dissenter Says this is like Dred Scot of 1857, setback After Plessy decision states passed laws mandating racial segregation in every aspect of southern life After this is when we start to see segregated restroom signs, “colored seating in rear,” etc. th Late 19  century referred to as the “Nadir”= A low point (particularly in regard to racial equality)  The Rise of Lynching Blacks who challenged Jim Crow faced violence Many white southerners considered preserving the purity of white womanhood a justification Sam Hose, Georgia 1899 Website: Without Sanctuary Identifying and Excluding: Redrawing the Boundaries of American Freedom The New Immigration and the New Nativism 3.5 million immigrants, 1890s Mostly from southern and eastern Europe Viewed as inferior Nativists tried to eliminate immigrants’ ability to vote Chinese Exclusion and Chinese Rights Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Supreme Court defined the reach of the Fourteenth Amendment Tape v. Hurley (1885) California ordered the city to admit Chinese students to pub
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