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History Ch 18.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1200
Professor
Ervin
Semester
Spring

Description
History Ch 18: The Progressive Era, 1900­1916 02/17/2014 1925­ NYC becomes largest city in the world 1910­ It was London The City & the Rise of a New Mass Consumer Society Points to Remember City was central Labor and women’s movements expanded the meanings of American freedom Progressivism included democratic and antidemocratic impulses Progressive presidents fostered the rise of the nation­state What do we mean by “Progressive”? 1910 Broad & loose political movement Individuals & groups wanted to implement significant reforms in society and politics Included businessmen, labor activists, female reformers, social scientists, (anxious) middle class Why was the city such a central element in Progressive America?? Farms and Cities The city became the focus 21 cities with populations greater than 100k in 1910 New York pop: 4.7 million The Muckrakers New generation of journalists—mass­circulation national magazines Exposed the ills of industrial & urban life Lincoln Steffens,The Shame of the Cities  (1904) Photographer Lewis Hine Novelists Upton Sinclair,The Jungle  (1906): Led to passage of food and meat inspection acts Immigration to the US 1840­1914: 40 million emigrated to U.S. 20 million to other parts of Western Hemisphere: Canada, Argentina, Brazil, the Caribbean Millions migrate to Southeast Asia & the South Pacific 1901­1914: 13 million immigrants to U.S. Ellis Island Asian immigrants, came through San Francisco Angel Island (Ellis Island of the West) Mexican immigrants, came through Texas The Immigrant Quest for Freedom “New” immigrants imagined the U.S. as a land of freedom Majority planned to earn money, return home & buy land “Birds of passage”: immigrant groups like Mexicans and the Irish who returned home Built close­knit ethnic neighborhoods Consumer Freedom Central Cities: Large department stores Urban Neighborhoods: Chain stores Farmers and Small­town Residents: Mail­order houses Leisure Dance halls Amusement parks “Nickelodeon” motion­picture theatres Five­cent admission Popular culture itself is shifting By 1910, 25 million Americans per week were attending motion pictures The Working Woman More women earning wages in formal economy Traditional gender roles changing dramatically More married women working outside the home Working woman as symbol of female emancipation The Rise of Fordism Henry Ford 1905, established Ford Motor Company 1908, Model T 1913, moving assembly line 1914, paid employees $5/day (a lot for time) said he wanted employees to afford what they produce Dramatically increased output, reduced price 1916, Model T $316 740,000 profits, up from 34,000 Fordism: Economic system based on mass production and mass consumption The Promise of Abundance New advertising linked goods to idea of freedom Prosperity=the American way of life Acquisition of material goods lead to personal fulfillment For the first time, mass consumption held a central place in how Americans understood themselves,  national, society, future An “American Standard of Living” and “Living Wage” New language to bring attention to inequalities of wealth and power A “living wage” understood as right of citizenship Father John A. Ryan,  A Living Wage  (1906) Progressives’ Visions What were Progressives’ visions of progress? Industrial Freedom Frederick W. Taylor, efficiency expert “scientific management” Called for workers to obey supervisors Limited freedom of skilled workers “Industrial freedom” & “industrial democracy” Lack of these at the root of “labor problem” Unions give workers a say in economic decision making (Louis Brandeis) Socialism The Socialist Party, founded in 1901 Height of influence during Progressive era Democratic control over economy through public ownership of means of production Eugene Debs – runs for president in 1912 and receives 6% of the vote AFL and IWW: Uni
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