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PSYCH 2410 (33)
van Marle (33)

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University of Missouri - Columbia
PSYCH 2410
van Marle

Jean Piaget – Founded the field of Cognitive Development and provided one of the broadest theories ever to account for changes in children’s thinking John Watson - Behaviorism – all behavior can be explained by responses to external stimuli – particularly rewards and punishments. Internal (mental) concepts need not be posited o Child development can be controlled by rewards and punishments = associative learning 7 Themes in development 1. Nature & Nurture a. How large a role does each play? i. Watson Study – Baby Albert Study (Causing him to learn fear with loud noises) b. Ohman & Mineka Study: Some fears stem from innate mechanisms i. Learn to be afraid of Snakes and spiders but not flower c. Schizophrenia: interaction of nature and nurture i. Nature if parent has it ii. Nurture if in troubled home iii. Both if parent has it and in troubled home 2. The Active Child a. What role do individuals play in their own development? i. Preferences to attend to certain things ii. Motivated to learn 1. Little ‘experimenters’ 2. Practice language when alone 3. Pretend play iii. Actively seek out own environment 3. Continuity and discontinuity a. Developmental Continuity i. Quantitative Change – How a tree grows naturally b. Developmental Discontinuity i. Qualitative Change – How a Caterpillar grows to chrysalis then to butterfly c. Is development more continuous or more discontinuous? i. It depends on how you look at data 1. Height gradually grows continuously, Reading seems to gradually grow 2. Height varies on how much they grow each individual year, Motor abilities seem more stage like 4. Mechanisms of Developmental Change a. How and Why Does Change Occur?? i. Perceptual – auditory system, visual system ii. Brain Development – frontal lobes iii. Strategy use – problem solving 5. Sociocultural Context a. The physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances in a child’s life b. Cross-cultural studies as a methodology 6. Individual Differences a. Despite sharing a vast number of common capacities for language, perception, thought etc., individuals also differ from one another
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