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van Marle (33)

February 6.docx

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PSYCH 2410
van Marle

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Biology and behavior Genetic similarity – Phenotypic similarity Chromosomes • 23 Pairs (46 total) • Half from mom, half from dad (via meiosis) • Leads to similarities • Mutations lead to differences Why are people different from one another?? • Because all traits are heritable, and all traits develop within an environment Behavioral Genetics • Traits of most interest (sociability, mood, aggression) typically are: o Polygenic & Multifactorial  It’s not easy to tease apart factors affecting the development of a behavior or ability • Assumptions of behavioral genetics 1. To the extent that genetic factors underlie a given trait… a. Genotypic similarity – phenotypic similarity 2. To the extent that environmental factors underlie a given trait… a. Individuals who are reared together should be more similar than those reared apart Twin studies • Compares correlation between identical twins (monozygotic) and same-sex fraternal twins (dizygotic) o Identical twins share 100% of genes o Fraternal twins share 50% of genes  Same as non-twin siblings o Assume environment is equal for both types of twins  Same womb, age, family, community, etc. • Minnesota Twin Study o Collected personality and interests scores with over 8,000 twin pairs and family members  MZ twins reared apart are just as similar in personality, interests, and attitudes as those reared together (strong genetic component)  Spouses of MZ twins are no more alike than spouses of DZ twins and hardly more alike that random pairs of people (weak genetic component)  MZ twins are more likely to die at about the same age; DZ twins are more likely to die at different ages (strong genetic component) • Adoption-Studies o Examines whether adopted childeren’s scores for a given trat are more highly correlated with those of their biological parents/sibs or their adoptive parents/sibs • Adoptive-Twin-Studies o Compare the similarity between identical twins who grew up together and those reared apart Heritability: A statistical estimate of the variance on a given trait attributable to genetic differences among those individuals • Substantial heritability has been reported for several different traits, including o Infant activity level o Temperament o Readi
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