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Psychology (148)
PSYCH 2410 (33)
van Marle (33)

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PSYCH 2410
van Marle

Structures of the Brain – The Neuron Continued Neurogenesis – the birth of neurons Aborization – increase in the density of the branches of dendrites, do this to increase the surface area so they can receive more signals Myelination – laying down of the fatty substance on the axon to increase speed of transmission and also insulates so signals aren’t lost Differentiation happens after birth Synaptogenesis – process of pruning away surplus connection Plasticity: the capacity of the brain to be affected by experience (Strabismus) 1. Experience-expectant plasticity a. Basic experiences are “expected” by the individual brain – less information needs to be coded by the genes b. If “expected” experience does not occur, deficits may result and rewiring may occur i. Congenital blindness 2. Experience-dependent plasticity a. Neural connections are created and reorganized throughout life as a function of individual experience i. Expert skills 1. Cellists and violinists Brain Damage and Recovery • Worst Time o Earliest stages of prenatal development and in first year  Affects neurogenesis and neuron migration • Best Time o Early childhood  Synapse generation and pruning are occurring  Plasticity is highest and brain can rewire • As plasticity lessens, less successful recovery Cognitive Development Jean Piaget • A constructivist theory (active child) o Child is motivated to learn o Learns on his or her own o Does not need rewards to learn • “Child as a scientist” o Children generate hypotheses, perform experiments, and draw conclusion • How does knowledge grow?? o Assimilation  Extending known action pattern to new object • Picking things up and putting them in your mouth o Accommodation  Modifying old action pattern to deal with new object • May be too heavy to pick up so now you lean over to put in mouth o Equilibration  Reaching a balance between current understanding and your knowledge • Piaget’s Theory: There are Qualitative Changes, None are skipped o Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years)  Substage 1 (birth to 1 month) • Young infants are reflexive o Reflexes are essential tools for learning  Sucking, grasping  Substage 2 (1-4 months) • Less reflex bound • More interested in world around them • Body-centered action (reach—grasp—bring to mouth) • Still severe limitation o Immature knowledge of objects • Putting everything in your mouth may seem
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