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PSYCH 2410 (33)
van Marle (33)

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PSYCH 2410
van Marle

Conceptual Development Cont… • Space o Egocentrism o Navigation o Gender differences • Number – early Knowledge o Numerical discrimination o Ordinal knowledge o Early calculation o Counting principles By 1.5 to 2 years… Conceptual Categories • Determine which actions go with which objects • Children us their concepts to make inferences o Shown an action, then they are given a toy from the same category of from a different category Category Hierarchies • Subordinate (general) – Furniture, vehicles, Europeans, animals, plants • Basic (medium) – chairs, tables, Spaniards, Finns, Cats Dogs • Subordinate (Specific) – La-Z- Boys, Armchairs, Picasso, Cervantes, Lions, Tigers • Basic Levels learned first o Within-category similarity is highest & between-category differences greatest o How?  Basic level used as foundation Concepts and categories are fundamental to cognition • They provide for o Organized thought o Inductive reasoning o Concepts make thinking efficient Development • Representing “where” (as opposed to “what”) • People, like other animals, code space relative to themselves AND to the external environment Using the self and landmarks Piaget: before 2-years of age, only egocentric representation • Locations coded relative to current position Egocentric vs. Allocentric Debate • Varied testing context using this basic paradigm o Step 1: train infant to turn and look at one window o Step 2: rotate infant 180”  If they turn and look at same window as before – allocentric • Reference to something external to self  If the turn the same way they were, looking at opposite window now – egocentric How do they overcome egocentrism without landmarks? • Related to self-locomotion o If 10-month-old moves himself to other side, more likely to find object o Continuously updating information when you move yourself through environment  Driving vs. riding in a car Geometry vs. Landmarks • Studies where they disorient rats and see where they orient themselves according to where they were shown the treat before becoming
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