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PSYCH 2410 (33)
van Marle (33)

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PSYCH 2410
van Marle

Cognitive Development Cont. Number cont. Limitations • Successful discrimination depends on ratio between numbers Babies can discriminate numbers of • Sounds • Visual objects • Events Infant arithmetic • Wynn o Added balls behind a trap door and babies noticed and looked longer when more were added or taken away Original Choice Study • Can infants select the larger of two quantities of crackers? • Feigenson et al. o Succeeded when picking between 1 v. 2 and 2 v. 3 but not 2 v. 4 or 3 v. 6 • Can infants select the larger of two quantities of crackers? o Set size limit of 3 items o Ratio between amounts doesn’t matter  Infants choose randomly Counting • With counting, you can get better accuracy • Developing during 3-6 years of age • Counting principles (what you need) o One-to-one correspondence o Stable order o Cardinality o Order irrelevance o Abstraction Concepts of space • Significant developments • Foundations of concept similar to other animals, But…. Language is important Concept of number • Core knowledge – early competence • But…. Language provides for accuracy and sophistication Theory of Mind • Understanding that people’s behavior is motivated by internal mental states o Folk psychology or Naïve psychology Why do we need it? 1. Predict how they will act and/or interpret their behavior a. Sarah’s dog is missing b. Sarah hears a scratching noise in the shed c. She goes to the shed and opens the door and finds a squirrel d. She begins to cry e. Why is she crying? i. We attribute a desire to sarah – her dog is missing and she wants to find him. When she heard the noise she thought or believed her dog was in the shed. She was disappointed. 2. Successful communication and teaching (Infancy – Categorization) a. Sensitivity to biological motion & faces b. Categorizing animates and inanimates differently c. Contingency alone and face alone is enough to get infants to follow gaze! d. Babies imitate humans, but not mechanical devices! (infancy – attributing preferences) i. Habituation, if a human changes a goal while the old one worked babies stare longer and wonder why 1. If it is a broom following same pattern human was in gaining a goal babies pay no attention What else is the infant doing before 2 years of age? 1. Interpreting new behavior in terms of past
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