Unit 1 – 1/31/2014
Takes a numerical approach to analysis
Any data collected and used is quantified (categorized as a number) to which various
statistical techniques are applied
In using statistical analysis, the researcher is able to examine the relationship between 2
or more variable
Variables are traits, qualities, or characteristics that can take on different values in
2 Types of Variables:
Dependent Variable: the behavior to be explained or predicted; it is influenced
by the independent variable
Independent Variable: explains or predicts the dependent variable; it causes
change or affects the dependent variable.
To say one variable affects another variable is to say that there is a relationship between
the two variables, or a correlation.
Spurious Correlation refers to the situation where a correlation between variables
exists, however the relationship is not meaningful.
1. Surveys & Questionnaires
Most of the data used by quantitative researchers is generated through surveys and
2 Popular Survey Scales:
1. LikertScale asks questions to which respondents responds based on level of
2. GuttmanScale asks questions that solicit a yes or no response
In constructing surveys and questionnaires, researchers must pay special attention to:
The wording of questions.
The order in which questions are organized.
Wording and Organization have the ability to affect the responses given, and can be used
to illicit a particular response both of which social researchers attempt to avoid.
Tend to be less time consuming than other methods
Allow researchers to generalize and compare across cultures, societies, and
Can be costly
It can be easy to overgeneralize
Survey questions can sometimes be misinterpreted by the respondents or skipped
Respondents could not take the survey seriously or not answer the questions