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SOCIOL 1000 Study Guide

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Sociology Study Guide ❖ Founding Sociologist August Comte (1798-1857) ● Was first to coin term sociology ● Born in France ● Influenced by French Revolution ● Founded Positivism which is an approach that assumes the methods of the natural sciences can be successfully applied to the study of social life. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) ● believed that social facts are regular patterns of behavior that exist independently of individuals and constrain individual behavior. ● did a study about suicide and how it related to social integration of individuals in the larger society ● Social facts ○ Guidelines for behavior ● Believed in a change from mechanical solidarity of small communities to organic solidarity of which resembled cities. ● Developed the structural functional theory ○ Structures > social consequences > society (and then society back structure/ loop) ■ Example: Families > socializing children > society Karl Marx (1818-1883) ● Born in Germany but due to exile lived most of life in Great Britain ● Industrial Revolution influenced him along with inequality around him ● Wrote the communist manifesto ○ Social change was the inevitable result of class conflict ● Dialectic as a process of change of time based on the clash of historical forces seen as a thesis, antithesis, and a synthesis. ● Believed that human history is plagued with class conflict ○ Father of Conflict Perspective ■ Society consists of groups competing for scarce resources ■ What appears on the surface to be cooperation merely masks the struggle for power. ● Believed that social structures remain in a society because they serve the interests of those who have the wealth and power. Max Weber (1864-1920) ● German son of a successful protestant entrepreneur ● Argued modern life was experiencing increasing rationality ● Traditional organizations were being superseded by bureaucracies ● The protestant work ethic encouraged the rise of capitalism ● social life based on rational action guided by subjective understanding anchored in shared cultural ideas. ○ if we want to understand people we have to understand how they see life ❖ Culture is related to social change ● Culture has to adapt to the changes taking place everyday ● Cultural diffusion- the spread of other cultures into new places ● Cultural leveling- When one culture meets another culture and parts of each culture are lost due to the combination. ● Culture Lag Theory is that technological change drives other changes in culture, with other cultural elements often lagging behind technology ○ when 1 or 2 parts of culture which are correlated changes before or in greater degree than other part does ○ example the atomic bomb and internet ❖ Key Theoretical Frameworks ● Structural functional Theory- There are functions because they are needed for structure. ○ Emile Durkheim ● Conflict Theory- There is and always will be class conflict because the upper class will never help nor agree with the lower class ○ Karl Marx ● Symbolic Interactionist Theory- micro level = how we work with others and how it makes the world function ○ George Herbert Mead ● Dramaturgical Theory- People present themselves in different ways like actors do in a drama- hence the name. ○ Erving Goffman ❖ Good Question characteristics ● Reliability - that there is consistency ● Validity - pertains to the subject at hand ○ Best of both are asked through…. ■ Ask questions respondents could reasonably be expected to know ■ Ask questions respondents want to tell you correctly ■ Ask questions that are neither too difficult to answer nor consume too much time ❖ Responses to Cultural Diversity ● Ethnocentrism - our country is standard for other countries ○ United States is judged for being this ● Multiculturalism - opposite of ethnocentrism because it values what other countries can bring to their own country (no one is better or worse). ❖ Sampling Issues ● Bias - if a sample produces results that are systematically different from those of the population in a specific direction. ● Asample is a subset of members of the population rather than the whole population. ● There are many different ways in which a sample can be gathered…. ○ quota sample - a specific number of cases falling into different subcategories must be filled. ○ convenience sample - a sample of people who were just easy to find/obtain. ❖ Roles Variables Play ● independent variables are variables in causal relationship through to affect or cause one or more dependent variables to change whenever its own value changes. (CAUSE) ● dependent variables are variables in a causal relationship whose value tends to change as a consequences of some change in the value of one or more independent variables. (EFFECT) ● control variables are variables that kept constant to remove its effect in a study ❖ Standards of Science ● Researcher should not do any harm ● any risks should be outweighed by benefits or shouldn't be done ● minimize risks ● privacy should be protected and guaranteed ● selection of subjects should be fair ● informed consent is a must ❖ Types of Culture ● Dominant Culture is that of which take precedence over other cultures in activities ○ so pervasive it's taken for granted ○ Ruling class through ideologies, values and beliefs ● Subcultures contain many aspects of the dominant culture but have unique and key aspects that differentiate them ○ examples could include social class and race ● Countercultures are like subcultures but much more extreme in differ
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