Class Notes (838,115)
United States (325,303)
Sociology (121)
All (12)
Lecture

SOCIOL 1000 Study Guide

6 Pages
74 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOCIOL 1000
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Sociology Study Guide ❖ Founding Sociologist August Comte (1798-1857) ● Was first to coin term sociology ● Born in France ● Influenced by French Revolution ● Founded Positivism which is an approach that assumes the methods of the natural sciences can be successfully applied to the study of social life. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) ● believed that social facts are regular patterns of behavior that exist independently of individuals and constrain individual behavior. ● did a study about suicide and how it related to social integration of individuals in the larger society ● Social facts ○ Guidelines for behavior ● Believed in a change from mechanical solidarity of small communities to organic solidarity of which resembled cities. ● Developed the structural functional theory ○ Structures > social consequences > society (and then society back structure/ loop) ■ Example: Families > socializing children > society Karl Marx (1818-1883) ● Born in Germany but due to exile lived most of life in Great Britain ● Industrial Revolution influenced him along with inequality around him ● Wrote the communist manifesto ○ Social change was the inevitable result of class conflict ● Dialectic as a process of change of time based on the clash of historical forces seen as a thesis, antithesis, and a synthesis. ● Believed that human history is plagued with class conflict ○ Father of Conflict Perspective ■ Society consists of groups competing for scarce resources ■ What appears on the surface to be cooperation merely masks the struggle for power. ● Believed that social structures remain in a society because they serve the interests of those who have the wealth and power. Max Weber (1864-1920) ● German son of a successful protestant entrepreneur ● Argued modern life was experiencing increasing rationality ● Traditional organizations were being superseded by bureaucracies ● The protestant work ethic encouraged the rise of capitalism ● social life based on rational action guided by subjective understanding anchored in shared cultural ideas. ○ if we want to understand people we have to understand how they see life ❖ Culture is related to social change ● Culture has to adapt to the changes taking place everyday ● Cultural diffusion- the spread of other cultures into new places ● Cultural leveling- When one culture meets another culture and parts of each culture are lost due to the combination. ● Culture Lag Theory is that technological change drives other changes in culture, with other cultural elements often lagging behind technology ○ when 1 or 2 parts of culture which are correlated changes before or in greater degree than other part does ○ example the atomic bomb and internet ❖ Key Theoretical Frameworks ● Structural functional Theory- There are functions because they are needed for structure. ○ Emile Durkheim ● Conflict Theory- There is and always will be class conflict because the upper class will never help nor agree with the lower class ○ Karl Marx ● Symbolic Interactionist Theory- micro level = how we work with others and how it makes the world function ○ George Herbert Mead ● Dramaturgical Theory- People present themselves in different ways like actors do in a drama- hence the name. ○ Erving Goffman ❖ Good Question characteristics ● Reliability - that there is consistency ● Validity - pertains to the subject at hand ○ Best of both are asked through…. ■ Ask questions respondents could reasonably be expected to know ■ Ask questions respondents want to tell you correctly ■ Ask questions that are neither too difficult to answer nor consume too much time ❖ Responses to Cultural Diversity ● Ethnocentrism - our country is standard for other countries ○ United States is judged for being this ● Multiculturalism - opposite of ethnocentrism because it values what other countries can bring to their own country (no one is better or worse). ❖ Sampling Issues ● Bias - if a sample produces results that are systematically different from those of the population in a specific direction. ● Asample is a subset of members of the population rather than the whole population. ● There are many different ways in which a sample can be gathered…. ○ quota sample - a specific number of cases falling into different subcategories must be filled. ○ convenience sample - a sample of people who were just easy to find/obtain. ❖ Roles Variables Play ● independent variables are variables in causal relationship through to affect or cause one or more dependent variables to change whenever its own value changes. (CAUSE) ● dependent variables are variables in a causal relationship whose value tends to change as a consequences of some change in the value of one or more independent variables. (EFFECT) ● control variables are variables that kept constant to remove its effect in a study ❖ Standards of Science ● Researcher should not do any harm ● any risks should be outweighed by benefits or shouldn't be done ● minimize risks ● privacy should be protected and guaranteed ● selection of subjects should be fair ● informed consent is a must ❖ Types of Culture ● Dominant Culture is that of which take precedence over other cultures in activities ○ so pervasive it's taken for granted ○ Ruling class through ideologies, values and beliefs ● Subcultures contain many aspects of the dominant culture but have unique and key aspects that differentiate them ○ examples could include social class and race ● Countercultures are like subcultures but much more extreme in differ
More Less

Related notes for SOCIOL 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit