HLTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: American Psychiatric Association, Sexual Orientation, Tomboy

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6 Nov 2019
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Sexual Orientation
Sexual orientation is one’s erotic, romantic and affectionate attraction to the same sex, to
the other sex or both
Heterosexuality
Attracted to the other sex
Bisexuality
Attracted to both the same and the other sex
Homosexuality
Attracted to same sex
Situational sex behavior
Same-sex behavior limited to specific circumstances in which members of
the same sex are generally deprived of contact with the other sex
Gay
Typiclaly refers to men who are homosexual, but often used
interchangeably for both men and women
Lesbian
Applies only to homosexual females
Sexual Orientation Myths
All gays and lesbians are easily identifiable because gay men are effeminate and
lesbian women are masculine.
In homosexual relationships, one partner plays the male role and the other plays
the female role.
Homosexuality is an emotional illness*
Gays and lesbians can change to become heterosexuals.
*American Psychiatric Association
Ruling of 12-15-73
Homosexuality does not meet the following standards to be
considered a mental disorder:
Regularly causes subjective distress
Or
(is) regularly associated with some subserviant impairment
in social functioning
Acting like a “sissy” or a “tomboy” causes or indicates homosexuality.
Gays and lesbians are oversexed and indiscriminately promiscuous.
Gay men and lesbians gravitate to particular occupations.
Gay and lesbian parents will raise gay and lesbian children.
Gays and lesbians cannot maintain long-term relationships.
Gays and lesbians think alike and tend to stick together.
Having one or a few homosexual experiences designates a person as a
homosexual.
Gay men molest children.
Theories of Same-Sex Attraction
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Facts
Many theories exist, but none have been proven or have been studied in
“perfect: clinical situations
Question: What causes any sexual orientation?
Genetic Theory: Something in a person’s genes causes that person to be
sexually attracted to members of the same-sex.
Hormonal Theory: Homosexuality is a result of hormonal imbalances,
either prenatally or after birth.
LeVay (1991) alleges that there is the existence of anatomical differences
in the size of parts of the brains of homosexual men when compared to
heterosexual men
Freud: If a young boy was unable to satisfactorily resolve the Oedipal
complex (attraction for his mother) he became fixated and might become
a homosexual.
Bieber, et al: Homosexual men more often had overprotective, dominant
mothers and weak, passive, and detached fathers than did heterosexual
men.
Theory of Learned Behavior: Homosexuality is the result of situations
and/or experiences usually early in childhood and reinforced throughout
one’s life.
Homosexual Lifestyle
Types of Relationships
Closed Couples: living together in committed, stable relationships.
Open Couples: living together with less emotional involvement and having
intercourse outside the relationship.
Functionals: sexually active people uncommitted to any partner.
Dysfunctionals: sexually active people with sexual problems who are
dissatisfied with their sexual orientation.
Asexuals: those unhappy about being homosexual and less active
sexually.
Homonegative
Homonegative (aka Homophobia) is an irrational fear of homosexuality in others,
a fear of homosexual feelings within oneself, or an unhappiness of one’s own
homosexuality.
It often results from ignorance, a belief in the common myths about
homosexuality, or the tendency to judge homosexuality as immoral.
Results of Prejudice
People with strong negative feelings often reveal their homophobia by openly
insulting homosexuals and subjecting people suspected of being homosexual to
verbal or physical assault.
Coming Out
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