Concepts: conceptualization, process of specifying what is meant by terms, explicit definition, helps to translate abstract theory into testable hypotheses, concept, a mental image summarizing set of similar observations, Feelings, or ideas: variable, characteristic or property that can vary, religion, socioeconomic status, self-esteem scale. Operation, operationalization & indicator: how to actually measure a concept, define concept, binge drinking, choose one variable to represent it, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, measure it with responses to indicator. Constructing questions: two types of question choices, closed-ended (fixed choice) questions, explicit response choices, choices should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive, open-ended questions, no explicit response choices. Making observations: observations used to measure characteristics of: In the past: measure prevalence of drinking in college dorms by. During past 30 days, on how many days did you drink one or more drinks of an alcoholic beverage? : no days.