ES 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Ebola Virus Disease, Improved Sanitation, Antibiotics

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8 Feb 2017

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Chapter 8. Environmental Health and Toxicology
Health - a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
Disease - an abnormal change in the body’s condition that impairs physical or psychological
Diet and nutrition, infectious agents, toxic chemicals, genetics, trauma and psychological stress
all play roles in morbidity (illness) and mortality (death).
Chronic diseases account for premature death and disease in both developed and
developing countries today.
Communicable diseases are still responsible for about 1/3 of all disease-related deaths.
Majority in countries with poor nutrition, sanitation, and vaccination
New diseases test our defenses in developed countries.
Better nutrition, clean water, improved sanitation and inoculation of children could eliminate
most of the deaths.
Pathogens are disease-causing organisms. They include:
1. Viruses
2. Bacteria
3. Protozoans
4. Parasitic worms including flukes
An emergent disease is one not previously known, or one which has been absent for at least 20
Bird flu
Ebola fever
Note: Air travel can spread emergent diseases around the globe quickly.
The protozoan parasite that causes malaria is now resistant to most antimalarial drugs, while
the mosquitoes that transmit the protozoan have developed resistance to many insecticides.
Natural selection and the ability of organisms to evolve rapidly
Human tendencies to overuse pesticides speeds up this process.
Antibiotics are chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
Toxicology is the study of poisons and their effects on living systems.
Dangerous chemicals are divided into 2 categories:
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