GN 301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Blastocyst, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Catheter

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Published on 6 Dec 2017
School
NCSU
Department
Genetics
Course
GN 301
1.1 Intro to Genetics
Thursday, August 17, 2017
10:14 AM
Heredity and environment influence genetics
Heredity: transfer of genes from one generation to the next
Environment: social and cultural conditions
Arrange chromosomes in karyotypes, a chart that displays similar chromosomes
Chromosomes have stripes, which missing pieces can make alert of mutations
Each chromosome has different genes on them
Phenotype: appearance of how the trait as it shows up (physical)
Genotype: forms of genes (letters that describe them)
2 copies of each gene so therefore 2 letters
Alleles: the letters of the genotype
Autosomes: chromosomes found in both sexes
Sex Chromosomes: chromosomes that are found in separate genders
Homunculus: theory that sperm implanted baby in mother (1600s)
How to tell sex of a child:
Amniocentesis
Fluid from child sampled from amniotic membrane
Chorionic callus sampling (CVS)
Villi removed from chorionic membrane and gen. Analyzed
Ultrasound
Twins
o Identical: one sperm and 1 egg join and produce two embryos
o Fraternal: two eggs were released and both so happened to be fertilized
What can affect the phenotype
o Epigenetics
Modification of gene expression and not change of genetic code
Proteins added that can turn genes on/off
Certain chemical compounds added
Histone modification
o Diet, Pollutants, Plastic Surgery
Gene Therapy: insertion of good copies of genes in purpose of correcting the error or treating a
disorder
o Ex: used for Canavan Disease, a degenerative neurological disorder that kills before age 1
Inhibits motor movement
Recessive autosomal disorder
Huntington's Disease
o Neurological disorder
o Dominant autosomal Disease
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Document Summary

Heredity and environment influence genetics: heredity: transfer of genes from one generation to the next, environment: social and cultural conditions. Arrange chromosomes in karyotypes, a chart that displays similar chromosomes: chromosomes have stripes, which missing pieces can make alert of mutations, each chromosome has different genes on them. Phenotype: appearance of how the trait as it shows up (physical) Genotype: forms of genes (letters that describe them: 2 copies of each gene so therefore 2 letters, alleles: the letters of the genotype. Sex chromosomes: chromosomes that are found in separate genders. Homunculus: theory that sperm implanted baby in mother (1600s: how to tell sex of a child, amniocentesis. Fluid from child sampled from amniotic membrane: chorionic callus sampling (cvs, villi removed from chorionic membrane and gen. Identical: one sperm and 1 egg join and produce two embryos: fraternal: two eggs were released and both so happened to be fertilized, what can affect the phenotype.