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Lecture 12

GN 301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: In Vitro Fertilisation, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Limb Development

Course Code
GN 301
Marian- Elizabeth B.Gardner

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3.2 Immune System Disorders
Thursday, October 19, 2017
10:13 AM
Types of Cells
o T Cells: found in thymus gland, skin, and small intestine; attack foreign cells directly
o B Cells: released from lymphoid tissue; make antibodies
Y shaped structure
held together by disulfide bonds
one antibody for one antigen
Somatic recombination
Original Strand contains variable-region, joining-region, and constant-region
DNA strand reduced
Only some parts transcripted and translated
o Macrophages: engulf bacteria
o Overreaction of the immune system
o HLA-DQ and HLA-DR genes predict allergies
(human leukocyte antigen)
Autoimmune Diseases
o Type 1 Diabetes
T cells attack cells that make insulin
Insulin gene has a low # of repeated segment
HLA region with alleles DR3 and D4
o Rheumatoid Arthritis
Attacks joints in hands, wrists, shoulders
HLA-DR4 allele in 60% of people who have disease
o Bruton’s Disease
T cells, but not B cells so no antibodies
o Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SCID)
Missing T and B cells
Bubble Boy David
Parents kept David in a bubble at all times
Social effects
o HIV and AIDS
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