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Lecture 4

PSY 20673 Lecture 4: PSY345 Chapter 2 Book Notes

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PSY 20673
Mc Stein

PSY345 CHAPTER 2: EDUCATION FOR ALL - 1994 Salamanca Statement (UN – support of 92 countries)- world-wide call to educate children with disabilities o Each child has unique characteristics, abilities, interests, & learning needs o Educational system & programs designed to meet the wide diversity of needs- give child opportunity to learn and apply necessary skills for successful transition into adult-life o Have access to general Ed. Schools which should accommodate them within child-centered instructional program o Regular schools with inclusive orientation most effective – prevents discriminatory attitudes, more welcoming community, inclusive society, education for all - Parents want literacy, personal autonomy& fulfillment, economic self-sufficiency, citizenship to be achieved from child’s educational experience - Education for All= full participation regardless of race, religion, culture, socioeconomic status, intellectual disability, physical disability - 1920-1960: o Education a privilege not a right o Last 3 centuries- education meant segregated education- separate classes or schools, not provide basic needs like medical, dental, social services, & education o Those with substantial differences did not get public education at all- mental hospitals mostly only option o 1930’s initiated educational services for those with mild emotional disorders, & physical disabilities o 1950’s – many separate special education schools – specially designed elevators, ramps, desks, toilets o 1940’s- issue of special school vs. general Ed.  1950’s 1960’s new model (mainstreaming: developed- child remain in general Ed class most of the time, and receive special education when needed) o 1960’s – significant changes in education – J.F Kennedy expanded role of U.S. gov’t – increased financial support for training for special Ed teachers , new educational projects funded o Civil rights movement of 1950 -1960 brought awareness to public of discrimination in employment, housing, access to public facilities, (restaurants, transportation), public education –U.S. Supreme court declared that education must be provided to everyone at equal terms – IT IS A RIGHT - set a precedent for right to education for students with disabilities - 1970’s: revolution in education for children with disabilities – landmark cases brought to court for right to education, state & federal legislation enacted to reaffirm rights for free public education for those students IDEA: INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (1975): - Named The Education for Handicapped Children (public law 94-142) in 1975, but renamed IDEA IN 1990 - ** Federal law that made free and appropriate education for eligible students aged 6-21- individualized education program, procedural safeguards for rights of the students & their families, multidisciplinary & non discriminatory assessment, option for educational experience in least restrictive environment - 1986- Public law 99-457 expanded the rights to preschoolers 3-5 & established a program for infants & toddlers with developmental delays – included multi disciplinary assessment & Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)- plan of services for infants, toddlers & their families-outlining child’s current developmental level, family strengths & needs, major outcome of plan & intervention systems to achieve that, dates for initiation of services & its duration , plan for transition into public school ZERO EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE: public schools provide special SPECIAL EDUCATION: Specially designed instructions education & related services to all eligible students regardless of provided to families at no cost in all settings (classrooms, type, nature, or extent of their disability schools, hospitals, institutions, physical education facilities, etc…) RELATED SERVICES: - Special transportation - Therapeutic recreation - Speech pathology, audiology services - Social services/social work - Psychological services - Medical services - Physical & occupational therapy - Rehab counselling - Services to ensure children with disability benefit from their educational experiences WHO’S ELIGIBLE FOR SERVICES (IDEA): 2 criteria: 1) Student must be identified as having disability under federal law or corresponding condition in special education rules & regulation- includes - Intellectual disabilities - Autistic- child disorder- extreme withdrawal, self- - Hearing impairments (deafness) stimulation, intellectual deficits, language disorder - Visual impairments (blindness) - Traumatic brain injury- direct injury to brain, swelling, - Speech & language impairment bruising of brain tissue against skull, tearing of nerve - Serious emotional disturbances fibers, brain stem trauma - Orthopedic Impairments: bodily impairment – interferes -Specific Learning disability with mobility, coordination, communication, learning, or personal adjustment - 1997 – option to exclude some categories of disability for 3-9 year olds – instead defined disability as developmental delays in areas of physical, cognitive, social & emotional, communications, or adaptive development (measure by appropriate diagnostic instruments & procedures) 2) Student demonstrates need for specialized instructions & related services in order to receive appropriate education & if not then can have combinations or modifications I their educational program MAJOR PROVISIONS OF IDEA: 1) All eligible students entitled to free & appropriate public education that meets their unique needs & prepare them for employments and independent living - FAPE (FREE AND APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION) based on 14 amendment to U.S. Constitution guaranteeing equal protection of law - Appropriate education consists of specially designed instructions & related services that are individually designed, to provide educational benefit 2) Schools must use Non-discriminatory & Multi-disciplinary Assessment in determining students’ special education needs - Testing of students in native or primary language when possible - Evaluation procedures that prevent cultural or racial discrimination - Validation of their assessment tools for the purpose for which they are being used - Assessment by team of school professionals, using several pieces of info to determine placement of student 3) Right of PARENTS to be involved in their decisions regarding their child’s special education program (parental safeguards & involvement) - give consent in writing before child assessed to determine eligibility for SE & RS (special education & related services) - Consent in writing regarding educational setting - Request for independent educational assessment if believe school’s assessment inappropriate - Request educational assessment at public expense if not agree with school’s assessment & recommendations - Participation in committee that considers assessment, placement, and programming for child - To inspect & review educational records & challenge info believed to be inaccurate, misleading, violation of privacy or other rights of child - Request copy of info from child’s educational records - request due process hearing concerning school’s proposal or refusal to initiate or change identification, educational assessment, or placement of child or provision of free and appropriate education - The whole idea is gets parents more
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