-The rush to empire
-german unification and expansion
-justification for empire
The Rush to Empire
2 half of 19 c. the New Imperialism, much larger in scope, creates governments and imposes
cultures. From coast -> inland.
Conditions of possibility
1) Metal hulled ships and steam engines: very efficient, can sail up rivers , won’t crack. Pick
up all the heavy raw material inland.
2) Deal with malaria-Europeans are very much in danger of malaria, how do they prevent it?
Isolate quinine in this exotic bark it alleviates malaria, take it w/ gin and tonic.
3) Better quality weaponry: the breech loading rifle and maxim machine gun, fuck up the
native’s shit. wwI is so traumatic because no one has any intention of using these on
Congress of Berlin (1885) to colonize congo, go up river, build forts along the way. Most of
these colonies are established by private companies armed w/ weapons, taking over for
1600- the dutch raise the price of pepper, and that boosts the british to get involved in the
spice trade. Liz I gives british east india company a charter. 1750- officers of east india
company break off on their own. Conquers Bengal, and others follow till by 1840 all of India
is controlled by private company w/ private military.
1857- Indian Mutiny/Sepoy Rebellion/First war of Independence. Sepoy- indian serving in
the british military. Enfield Rifle is invented. The cartridges are greased with animal fat that
is unclean to muslims and hindus, so they refuse to handle them. The british won’t change.
They rebel. Gov steps in.
The Belgian Congo- King Leopold II’s playground. Hires Henry Morton Stanley, forms
International African Society to govern. The Heart of Darkness is set here. Brits would cut of
hands to enforce loyalty. 2-15 million people are