4/9 Rise of Fascism
Fascist in Spain after 1936 war, movements everywhere. We will focus on Italy and Germany.
Characteristics of Fascism:
-(insert fancy term he used that I didn’t catch, palingenetic?) Nationalism: sough rebirth of
national spirit/culture/society in form of a revised state
-state run economy
-believe in therapeutic/regenerative nature of violence
-usually had considerable middle class support
-relied on all encompassing virtual framework fo public life, including sense of rituals, symbols
-masculine principle supreme
SECULAR LITURGY/CIVIC RELIGION
-address the rise of the two major fascist movements and the interwar environment from which
Part 1: Italy
Fascism comes from fasci- means bundle of sticks/union in political context. Used by left-wing
1914-Fasci di azoine rivoluzionaria, this group comes abut and wants Italy to be involved in
WWI for nationalist reason- enter war, reclaim lost territory, social/economic reform.
Benito Mussolini will create first fascist organization. B. 1883 to family of devoted socialists.
Hes named after their revolutionaries. Mom is a teacher, dad blacksmith. Working class.
Mussolini a failed teacher. Moves to Switzerland. Returns to Italy in 1912, and takes up
journalism. Editor of Avanti! Leading socialist newspaper. Enjoys Nietzsche. Want to combine
right wing nationalism with strong leadership and socialism. Not a racist, but his boiiiiss are
sometimes. Fascism wasn’t racially motivated. Italy didn’t have many minority groups to blame.
Mussolini joins military, supports Italian involvement in great war, is injured in training.
LOLOLOLOL what. Editory of Popolo d’Italia, criticizes guv’ment, celebrates dictatorship. Conditions of Possibility:
1) Nature of Italy- 50% rural farmers. Dramatic change with industrialixation. Agricultural
workers feel adrift,.
2) Differences between urban and rural affected by war. World views are changing. Many
move to urban center, and don’t come back. Cornerstones of Italian life change.
3) Division between modern, industrialized north and traditional, agricultural south.
4) Major economic issues-inflation, unemployment, striking, panicky middle class