Lecture Notes His 230 Prof.docx

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HIS - History
HIS - History HIS 231
Eric Zuelow

Lecture Notes His 230 Prof. Eric Zuelow- Shannon Cardinal Fall 2012 Sept.4) The Rise of the Polis/ Emergence of Democracy Democratic Building Blocks -Tight-knit group,sense of community, common sense of identity -Belief that ordinary people matter Part I. The Early Greek World (1200-800 B.C.E.) -Before 1200 Minoans and Myceneans dominate -Invented written language -War/natural disaster ravage them, by 1200 they’re gone. It seems we forget written language 1200 B.C.E. THE DARK AGES -habitation sites start declining, stagnant population 800 B.C.E. population BOOMS (increases sevenfold between 780-720 B.C.E.) due to the GREEK AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION! Mediterranean triad-Olives, Grapes, Wheat/Barley And here starts the ARCHAIC PERIOD Part II. The Rise of the Polis Asity+Chora=Polis City + agricultural lands = Polis THE AGORA Social, economic,political hub of Polis Sparta- Militiristic, Art is for wussies and girly-men Apella-assembly of citizens, no power but that of suggestion Gerousia- council of Homoioi(Equals)made of 2 kings, 5 Ephors (overseers) decides whether or not to heed Apella’s suggestions How do you join these fancy councils? Simple. Dedicate your whole life to military service. At 7, sent to Military School-Agoge 18-Graduate as part of the secret police-Krypteia. Keep a special eye on those slaves of the state (helots). 20-Serve in the army till you (hopefully) reach the age of 60, when you can enter the political arena! Part III. The Hoplite Phalanx and the Individual The only people who could afford to serve in the army were rich (horses,armor,etc costly) But we need a bigger force! So hoplites develop.. HOPLITES Anyone can be one! Each hoplite is important, and all have an obligation to the group THE ILAID Achilles slave slam piece is stolen by Agamemnon, and he struggles with losing his bopping bitch and the importance of individuality vs. the collective group. Instruction Manual/Moral instruction Part IV. Athens and the Birth of Democracy 621 B.C.E. Draco starts writing laws (Draconian) 594 B.C.E. Solon elected Chief Magistrate of Attica (Athens), develops new constitution- trial by jury, legislative bodies, codified law Council of 500-Boule Legislative Assembly- Ekklesia Solon passes, tyrants rise and ruin his work. THIS IS WHY WE CAN’T HAVE NICE THINGS. 507 B.C.E. Tyrants overthrown, back to Solon’s blueprint under Kleisthenes A Radical Democracy ensues, every citizen is expected to serve Slaves and foriegners can’t serve, Phallocracy (ruled by men) women can’t leave home unattended ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY the product of some longterm shtuff like -population growth -agricultural growth -increasing social complexity -development of hoplite phalanx -increasing value of individuals in society The political developments in Attica stir this all up and bake a big ol’ batch of DEMOCRACY ______________________________________________________________________________ Sept. 7) BODY HEAT (Life in Classical Athens) This lecture based on the works of Eva C Keuls (Reign of the Phallus) vs. Richard Sennett (Flesh and Stone) Whats up in Athens?-hyper democracy,every full citizen serves, paid for some service,large juries,political day over at noon. Part I. PERICLES Funeral Oration-THE ATHENIAN S ARE SOOOOOOOOOO AWESOME. great memory, extraordinary ancestors, rich culture, athleticism, education- “Athens is the school of Helleas (Greece)” into education “without effeminacy”. The History by Herodotus beginning of history in the west Sort of anthropologist, sort of tourist “Great will be your glory in not falling short of you natural character, greatest will be hers who is least talked about among men for good or for bad.” Pericles Part II. The Athenian Body Men-Hot Women-Cold Foriegners-Lukewarm th In art no female nudes till 4 cent. PLENTY of male nudes. Women-same anatomy, just folded in “What you wanted was A LOT of hot sperm!”-Eric Foreplay important to heat the cold ladies up Hetaerai- prostitutes Educated males at the Gymnasium, from Gumnoi-stark naked Palestra-wrestling,excersize (naked, of course!) Men learn a lot of Homer Belief that muscly men are better at controlling themselves Malthakoi-effeminate, receptive during sex Erastes-older men who come to gym, watch young boys (eromenos) choose one to “mentor”. (by mentor we mean fondle.) NO PENETRATIVE SEX. Hand jobs, “frotage” meant not to induce ejaculation but to raise body heat, teach self control And women if not procreating belonged on their knees. Phallocracy (eva keuls) celebration of male power Symposium-male drinking club/bar (only prostitutes allowed) women aren’t even allowed in the Agora! Houses are designed to separate genders,whores are the most liberated women in Athenian society Sappho Festival of Adonia- women’s festival celebrates death of Adonis,associated with Hedonism. Occurs once a year. Cue Conway Twitty, cause this man had a sloooooooooow hand. “Hercules was more of a wham-bam-thank you m’am sort of guy.”-Eric Women plant lettuce as an anti-aphrodisiac, then let it die, and so they begin to frolic The Bacchae by Euripides- Dionysus seduces bunch of women, they have giant orgy, men come out to stop it, the women murder him Herms-yard decoration. Bearded hermes w/ erect phallus MUTILATION OF THE HERMES Summer of 415 B.C. the men are preparing for war, some vandals removed penises from every herm in Athens
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