Intro to Psych Ch 8.docx

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Rebecca Nappa

Chapter 8 Memory Acquisition, Storage, Retrieval 3 aspects of memory: In order to remember you must learn something. (aquisition) To be remembered an experience must leave some record in the nervous system. (storage) Process of drawing information from storage and using it. (retrieval) Recall: a type of retrieval that requires you to produce an item from memory in response to a cue or question. Recognition: a type of retrieval that requires you to judge whether you have encountered a stimulus previously. Acquisition Acquisition: the processes of gaining new information and placing it in memory. Intentional learning: placing new information into memory in anticipation of being tested on it later. Working memory, long-term memory Stage theory of memory: proposes that memory acquistion could be understood as dependent on three types of memory. Info first arrives, stored breifly in sensory memory Iconic memory for visual inputs Echoic memory for auditory inputs. Short term memory: place information is held while it is being worked on. Working memory: a term describing the status of thoughts in memory that are currently activated. Long-term memory: the vast memory depository containing all of an individuals knowledge and beliefs- including all those not in use at any given time. Primacy and recency Primary effect: in free recall, the tendency to recall the first items on the list more readily than those in the middle. Recency effect: in free recall, the tendency to recall items at the end of the list more readily than those in the middle. Working memory's limit is 7 (give or take a few) items. Recording to expand the capacity of working memory Chunking: a process of reorganizing (or recoding) materials in working memory by combining a number of items into a single, larger unit. Establishing long term memories The importance of active engagement Maintenance rehearsal: mechanical repetition of material without thinking about its meaning or patterns. The link between long term memory and understanding Shallow processing: an approach to memorization that involves focusing on the superficial characteristics of the stimulus, such as the sound of a word or the typeface in which it's printed. Deep Processing: an approach to memorization that involves focusing on the meaning of a stimulus. The key role for memory mechanics Mnemonics: deliberate techniques people use to memorize new materials. Storage Memory trace: the physical record in the nervous system that preserves a memory. Memory consolidation: the biological process through which memories are transformed from a transient and fragile status to a more permanent and robust state; according to most researchers, consolidation occurs over the course of several hours. Retrograde amnesia: a memory deficit, often suffered after a head injury, in which the patient loses memory for events that occurred before the injury. Retrieval Retrieval: the process of searching for a memory and finding it. Retrieval failures: cases in which the information is in your memory, but you fail to locate it. Partial retrieval Tip of the tongue (TOT) effect: the condition in which one remains on the verge of retrieving a word or name but continues to be unsuccessful. Effective retrieval cues Retrieval cue: a hint or sig
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