Chapter 8 Memory
Acquisition, Storage, Retrieval
3 aspects of memory:
In order to remember you must learn something. (aquisition)
To be remembered an experience must leave some record in the nervous system. (storage)
Process of drawing information from storage and using it. (retrieval)
Recall: a type of retrieval that requires you to produce an item from memory in
response to a cue or question.
Recognition: a type of retrieval that requires you to judge whether you have
encountered a stimulus previously.
Acquisition: the processes of gaining new information and placing it in memory.
Intentional learning: placing new information into memory in anticipation of being tested on it later.
Working memory, long-term memory
Stage theory of memory: proposes that memory acquistion could be understood as dependent on three
types of memory.
Info first arrives, stored breifly in sensory memory
Iconic memory for visual inputs
Echoic memory for auditory inputs.
Short term memory: place information is held while it is being worked on.
Working memory: a term describing the status of thoughts in memory that are currently activated.
Long-term memory: the vast memory depository containing all of an individuals knowledge and beliefs-
including all those not in use at any given time.
Primacy and recency
Primary effect: in free recall, the tendency to recall the first items on the list more readily than those in
Recency effect: in free recall, the tendency to recall items at the end of the list more readily than those
in the middle. Working memory's limit is 7 (give or take a few) items.
Recording to expand the capacity of working memory
Chunking: a process of reorganizing (or recoding) materials in working memory by combining a number
of items into a single, larger unit.
Establishing long term memories
The importance of active engagement
Maintenance rehearsal: mechanical repetition of material without thinking about its meaning or
The link between long term memory and understanding
Shallow processing: an approach to memorization that involves focusing on the superficial
characteristics of the stimulus, such as the sound of a word or the typeface in which it's printed.
Deep Processing: an approach to memorization that involves focusing on the meaning of a stimulus.
The key role for memory mechanics
Mnemonics: deliberate techniques people use to memorize new materials.
Memory trace: the physical record in the nervous system that preserves a memory.
Memory consolidation: the biological process through which memories are transformed from a
transient and fragile status to a more permanent and robust state; according to most researchers,
consolidation occurs over the course of several hours.
Retrograde amnesia: a memory deficit, often suffered after a head injury, in which the patient loses
memory for events that occurred before the injury.
Retrieval: the process of searching for a memory and finding it.
Retrieval failures: cases in which the information is in your memory, but you fail to locate it.
Tip of the tongue (TOT) effect: the condition in which one remains on the verge of retrieving a word or
name but continues to be unsuccessful.
Effective retrieval cues Retrieval cue: a hint or sig