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Lecture 3

BIOL 1115 Lecture 3: Chapter 3

13 Pages
25 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1115
Professor
terrikanner
Lecture
3

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Chapter 3: The Chemical Basis of Life II: Organic Molecules
What is the difference between an organic and an inorganic molecule?
o Organic molecule
Has a carbon backbone
If it has a carbon and a hydrogen it is organic
o Inorganic molecule
Composed of other elements
May contain a carbon or hydrogen, not both
What other elements often are common components of organic molecules?
o Hydrogen, oxygen
Define Hydrocarbon:
o An organic compound that consists of hydrogen and carbon
Are hydrocarbons hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
hydrophobic
How many covalent bonds can carbon form with other atoms?
o 4
Why is this advantageous?
It allows a vast number of organic compounds to be created from only a few
chemical elements.
Functional Groups
o What is a functional group?
Groups of atoms with characteristic chemical structures and properties.
Why are functional groups significant?
o They exhibit similar chemical properties in all molecules in which it occurs.
Complete the table below
Draw structure
Name(s) of compounds
that contain this group
Example
Hydroxyl
Polar; forms hydrogen
bonds with water
Steroids, alcohol,
carbohydrates, some
amino acids
Carbonyl
Polar; highly chemical
reactive; forms
hydrogen bonds
Steroids, waxes, and
proteins
Carboxyl
Acidic (gives up H+ in
water); forms part of
peptide bonds
Amino acids, fatty acids
Amino
Weakly basic (can
accept H+); polar; forms
part of peptide bonds
Amino acids (proteins)
Sulfhydryl
Polar; forms disulfide
bridges in many
proteins
Proteins that contain
the amino acid cysteine
Phosphate
Polar; weakly acidic and
Nucleic Acids, ATP,
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thus negatively charged
at typical pH of living
organisms
phospholipids
Methyl
Nonpolar
May be attached to
DNA, proteins, and
carbohydrates.
What is the subtle difference between a ketone and an aldehyde?
To make an amino acid (the basic unit of a protein) what two functional groups must be added to a
carbon skeleton? This is very important to remember!
o Carboxyl group
o Amino group
Go to the following website and read about how sulfhydryl groups are responsible for permanent hair
waves: http://chemistry.elmhurst.edu/vchembook/568hairwave.html
Take the time to read the ingredient list on many of your favorite items and start seeing functional
groups.
Isomers
What is an isomer?
o Two molecules with an identical chemical formula but different structures and characteristics.
Label the two types of isomers below as either structural, or stereoisomer (cis/trans; enantiomers)
Trans
Enantiomer
Structural
It is important to note that form and function are always related. Note that emergent properties depend
on the specific arrangement of atoms.
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Organic Molecules
List the four main classes of large organic molecules (macromolecules)
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleotides
What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer?
Monomers are the building blocks of polymers
Polymers are large molecules that have repeating structural units of monomers
Which three classes of macromolecules form polymers?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Nucleic Acids
Formation of Organic Molecules:
Describe a hydrolysis reaction
o The process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles.
Example of where this occurs within the body
The breaking down of triglyceride to form glycerol and fatty acids
Describe a dehydration reaction
o A chemical reaction that involves the loss of water molecule from the reacting molecule.
Example of where this occurs within the body
The formation of maltose from two molecules of glucose
Label each of the following as a dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis reaction
Hydrolysis reaction
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Description
Chapter 3: The Chemical Basis of Life II: Organic Molecules • What is the difference between an organic and an inorganic molecule? o Organic molecule ▪ Has a carbon backbone • If it has a carbon and a hydrogen it is organic o Inorganic molecule ▪ Composed of other elements • May contain a carbon or hydrogen, not both • What other elements often are common components of organic molecules? o Hydrogen, oxygen • Define Hydrocarbon: o An organic compound that consists of hydrogen and carbon ▪ Are hydrocarbons hydrophilic or hydrophobic? • hydrophobic • How many covalent bonds can carbon form with other atoms? o 4 ▪ Why is this advantageous? • It allows a vast number of organic compounds to be created from only a few chemical elements. Functional Groups o What is a functional group? ▪ Groups of atoms with characteristic chemical structures and properties. • Why are functional groups significant? o They exhibit similar chemical properties in all molecules in which it occurs. Complete the table below Draw structure Name(s) of compounds that contain this group Example Hydroxyl Polar; forms hydrogen bonds with water Steroids, alcohol, carbohydrates, some amino acids Carbonyl Polar; highly chemical reactive; forms hydrogen bonds Steroids, waxes, and proteins Carboxyl Acidic (gives up H+ in water); forms part of peptide bonds Amino acids, fatty acids Amino Weakly basic (can accept H+); polar; forms part of peptide bonds Amino acids (proteins) Sulfhydryl Polar; forms disulfide bridges in many proteins Proteins that contain the amino acid cysteine Phosphate Polar; weakly acidic and Nucleic Acids, ATP, thus negatively charged at typical pH of living organisms phospholipids Methyl Nonpolar May be attached to DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. • What is the subtle difference between a ketone and an aldehyde? • To make an amino acid (the basic unit of a protein) what two functional groups must be added to a carbon skeleton? This is very important to remember! o Carboxyl group o Amino group • Go to the following website and read about how sulfhydryl groups are responsible for permanent hair waves: http://chemistry.elmhurst.edu/vchembook/568hairwave.html • Take the time to read the ingredient list on many of your favorite items and start “seeing” functional groups. Isomers • What is an isomer? o Two molecules with an identical chemical formula but different structures and characteristics. • Label the two types of isomers below as either structural, or stereoisomer (cis/trans; enantiomers) Trans Enantiomer Structural • It is important to note that form and function are always related. Note that emergent properties depend on the specific arrangement of atoms. Organic Molecules List the four main classes of large organic molecules (macromolecules) 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleotides What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer? • Monomers are the building blocks of polymers • Polymers are large molecules that have repeating structural units of monomers Which three classes of macromolecules form polymers? 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Nucleic Acids Formation of Organic Molecules: • Describe a hydrolysis reaction o The process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles. ▪ Example of where this occurs within the body • The breaking down of triglyceride to form glycerol and fatty acids • Describe a dehydration reaction o A chemical reaction that involves the loss of water molecule from the reacting molecule. ▪ Example of where this occurs within the body • The formation of maltose from two molecules of glucose • Label each of the following as a dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis reaction Hydrolysis reaction
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