Class Notes (886,236)
US (344,017)
NU (4,056)
BIOL (638)
BIOL 1115 (41)
Lecture 14

BIOL 1115 Lecture 14: Chapter 14

3 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 1115

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Chapter 14 • Mutation o Heritable change in DNA ▪ Good • Source of variation ▪ Harmful • Cancer o DNA repair systems • Gene mutations may affect amino acid sequences o Silent mutation o Missense mutation o Nonsense mutation o Frameshift mutation • Gene mutations outside of coding sequences o Promoter mutation ▪ May enhance or inhibit transcription o Regulatory elements or operator site mutations ▪ Operator mutation affects binding of a repressor protein • Germ-line or somatic cell mutations o Time and location of a mutation ▪ Determines its severity and the heritability o Germ line cells ▪ Gametes o Somatic cells ▪ Body cells • Spontaneous or induced mutations o Spontaneous mutations ▪ Cause biological process mistake ▪ Background mutation rate – 1 mutation / million genes o Induced mutations ▪ Cause: environmental agents • Mutagens • Chemical mutagens o Disruption of base pairing ▪ Some modify nucleotide structure • Nitrous acid • Mustard gas o Disruption of replication ▪ Benzopyrene • Physical mutagens o Radiation damage ▪ Ionizing radiation • High energy • Penetrates deeply • Creates free radicals • X-rays and gamma rays ▪ Nonionizing radiation • Less energy and can only penetrate the surface • UV rays • Thymine dimers • Types of repair o Direct repair
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.