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Major Themes: Form and Function, Scientific Method, Origins and Adaptations

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BIOL 1117
Christopher Richardson

L1-Major Themes ofAnatomy and Physiology 9/4/13 • Anatomy - The Study of Form o Inspection - looking o Palpation – directly contact (feeling) of structures with your hand o Auscultation – listening (listening to body sounds) that give clues/insight to how body is working o Percussion – generating sounds o Anatomy and dissection both mean cutting apart; dissection is necessary for deeper study o Histology (microscopic anatomy)  Examination of tissues with microscope  Histopathology is studying tissues for signs of disease  Ultrastructure is the fine detail of tissue revealed by electron microscope • Physiology: The Study of Function o Comparative Physiology  Comparing different species to discover functions and how they evolved  Insight into the evolution of physiological systems: diverse solutions to survival that evolved in animals (i.e. ability to survive freezing)  Using animal models to learn more about human physiology • Scientific Method o Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes: Formalized ideal for scientific method o Governments of England and France  Academies of science promoted sound science throughout the world o Science and Scientific Methods  Combinations of disciplined creativity, careful observation, logical thinking and honest analysis • Inductive Method o Making numerous observations until one becomes confident in drawing generalizations from them -> New generalizations can be made o Inductive Method - Moving from the specific to the general o Proof in Science  Must be repeatable o “Proof beyond a reasonable doubt” • Hypothetico-Deductive Method o Hypothesis: possible answer to a question, must be able to be proven right or wrong (must be testable) • From a hypothesis, a prediction is made as a deduction o General to specific (general hypothesis to specific deduction) • Experimental Design o Proper/correct experimental design helps ensure that results are not biased in some way o Controls  Control groups ensure that observed differences are due to the treatment factor being tested  The Control group defines the normal, before testing/experiment condition of the subjects o Experimenter Bias  Prevented with double-blind study  Double-blind study: Hiding the identity of both the treatment groups and the control groups o Statistical Testing  Aprobability value or P value is the chance that experimental results occurred by random chance alone  If chance alone is low enough, then one has significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis of no difference • Facts, Laws and Theories o Law of Nature  Physical, biological, or social system laws (general processes) o Theory  i.e. cell theory, fluid-mosaic theory, sliding filament theory  Theory summarizes what we know and suggests directions for future study  Scientists use a hypoth
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