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Major Themes: Human Structure and Function

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BIOL 1117
Christopher Richardson

L2-Major Themes ofAnatomy and Physiology 9/5/13 • Hierarchy of Complexity o Organism o Organ System  Each organ system has a collective function o Organ  Organs have a definite anatomic boundary and are distinguishable from other structures  Possible to have organs within organs (i.e. skin -> contains many smaller organs within it) o Tissue  4 major tissue types: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular o Cells o Organelles o Molecules  macromolecules – proteins, carbohydrates, fats, DNA/RNA (nucleic acids)  Cells and their organelles contain highly complex macromolecules o Atoms _____________ o Reductionism: theory that a large, complex system can be understood by studying its simpler components  Study of a part or process while other parts are held constant  Has been useful to the study of complex systems like physiological processes o Holism: ‘emergent properties’of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of the separate parts  Study of contradictions which exist in all processes and systems as part of understanding how complexity develops in all systems • Anatomical Variation o Variation reflects differences in genetic and environmental factors • Characteristics of Life o Energy Use/Metabolism  Living things take in molecules from environment, change them, and then excrete byproducts  Excretion is required to remove the waste molecules that are produced by metabolism o Basal Metabolic Rate  BMR has been a widely measured variable in mammals and provides important standardized measure of energy expenditure  *Amammal must first meet its energetic costs of maintenance and thermoregulation before it can expend energy on anything else*  BMR is basically the minimal energy expenditure needed to keep animal alive o Development/Reproduction/Evolution  Differentiation is the transformation of generalized cells into more specialized cells  Growth is increased size and occurs in response to chemical changes  All living species exhibit genetic change from generation to generation and therefore evolve • Selection pressures can cause some individuals which differ from others in some form or function to survive longer and reproduce better than others without that variant o Physiological variation  Physical traits vary among animals due to sex, age, mass, diet, activity and environment  Physiological variation is found wit
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