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BIOL 1117 (81)


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BIOL 1117
Christopher Richardson

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L5-The Chemistry of Life: Biocompounds 9/16/13 • Organic chemistry: study of compounds containing carbon • Biochemistry: the study of the compounds that compose living organisms • 4 categories of bio-compounds – carbohydrates – Lipids – proteins – nucleic acids • Organic Molecules and Carbon – 4 valence electrons • Can bind with up to four other atoms because it has four electrons in its valence shell • This means carbon gaining four or losing four electrons is not a simple clear energetically most stable arrangement – Carbon will normally never form an ionic bond – Carbon atoms bind readily with each other: carbon backbones • Forms long chains, branched molecules and rings • Carbon easily and readily binds with H, O, N and S as well as a few other atoms – Carbon backbone carries a variety of functional groups • Functional Groups – Small clusters of atoms attached to carbon backbone – Hydroxyl (-OH), methyl (-CH ), carb3xyl (-COOH), amino (-NH ), 2 phosphate (-H PO2) 4 • Know basic effects (determine basic properties of organic molecules • Monomers and Polymers – Macromolecules: very large organic molecules with very high molecular weights – Polymers: molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits – Monomers: an identical or similar subunit – Polymerization: Joining monomers to form a polymer • Making a polymer can occur in a living system or inorganically • Dehydration Synthesis – Monomers covalently bond together to form a polymer with the removal of a water molecule • Ahydroxyl group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen from the next • Hydrolysis – Splitting a polymer by the addition of a water molecule • Awater molecule ionizes into –OH and H+ • The covalent bond linking one monomer to the other is broken • The –OH is added to one monomer while the H+ is added to the other • The formation of new bonds is an end product of hydrolysis • All chemical digestion is accomplished by hydrolysis • Bio-molecules: Carbohydrates – Hydrophilic organic molecule – General formula • (CH O2 n n = number of carbon atoms – Monosaccharides: simplest, three types; glucose is most important • For glucose, n = 6, so formula is C H6O 12 6 • Glucose is the blood sugar that provides energy for our cells – Disaccharides: two monosaccharides • Polysaccharides – 3 polysaccharides with impact on physiology – Glycogen: energy storage polysaccharide in animals • Principal, main storage polysaccharide in animals • Made by cells of liver, muscles, brain, uterus, and vagina • Muscles can make a lot of glycogen due to need for short term energy • Liver produces glycogen after eating when blood glucose level is high, then breaks it down between eating to maintain blood glucose levels • Liver has important role in maintaining homeostasis – Starch: energy storage polysaccharide in plants • Only significant digestible polysaccharide in the human diet – Cellulose: structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls • Cannot be chemically broken down by a cell of any vertebrate (some animals, like cows, use bacteria to break it down); in the human body, cellulose is important as a fiber in the diet • Carbohydrate Functions – Quickly mobilized source of energy • All digested carbohydrates converted to glucose • Oxidized to makeATP – Conjugated carbohydrate – covalently bound to lipid or protein • Glycolipids and glycoproteins are two important types • Are structural components of the surface of a cell membrane • Also, glycoproteins form mucus, which is a protective material which lines the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts • Bio-molecules: Lipids – Hydrophobic organic molecule • Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen • With high ratio of hydrogen to oxygen – Less oxidized than carbohydrates, and thus has more calories/gram – Five primary types in humans • fatty acids • triglycerides • phospholipids • steroids • FattyAcids – Chain of 4 to 24 carbon
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